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BERGAMASCO SHEPHERD

(Cane da pastore Bergamasco)

              

 

FCI-Standard N° 194   / 01. 06. 1992 /GB


TRANSLATION : Mrs. Peggy Davis and Mrs. Ruth Binder-Gresly.

ORIGIN : Italy.

DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE ORIGINAL VALID STANDARD : 27.11.1989.

UTILIZATION : Shepherd dog used in driving and guarding herds.

CLASSIFICATION F.C.I. :               Group            1          Sheepdogs and Cattledogs – except Swiss cattledogs.

                                               Section 1 Sheepdogs.

                                               Without working trial.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY : This ancient breed of guard dogs of herds has spread all over the region of the Italian Alps; the total number of these dogs was especially great in the Bergamasca valleys, where the breeding of sheep was highly developed.

GENERAL APPEARANCE : The Bergamasco shepherd is a dog of medium size of rustic appearance with an abundant coat covering all parts of the body, of a powerful construction but very well proportioned.  Its general shape is that of a medium proportions dog, whose body fits into a square.  He is balanced as much in relation to its size (heterometry = normal proportions between size and different parts of the body) as with the profiles (alloidisme = concordance between the profiles of the head and the body).

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS : The length of the body, measured from the foremost point of the shoulder (humeral-scapular joint) to the rearmost point of the thigh (pelvic tuber of the ischium) is equal to the height at the withers (the body thus fitting into a square).  Permitted, but not desirable is a slight margin of tolerance which in no case must be more than one or two cms.  The length of the head is 4/10 of the height at the withers.  The depth of chest must be 50% of the height at the withers.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT : The function of the Bergamasco Shepherd is to guide and guard the herd, task for which he shows exemplary disposition thanks to his vigilance, his concentration and psychological balance- His learning faculty and determination combined with his moderation and patience make of him an excellent guard and companion dog, suited to the most divers uses.  He establishes a close relationship with man.

HEAD : The length of muzzle is the same as that of the skull.  In its parallelepiped ensemble, the head seems large.  The skin must not be thick, but close fitting to the underlying tissues without forming wrinkles.

CRANIAL REGION :
Skull : The skull is broad and slightly convex between the ears; is also wide and rounded in the region of the forehead.  The upper longitudinal head planes of the skull and the muzzle are parallel.   The length of the skull is the same as that of the muzzle.  Its width must not be more than half the length of the head.  The protuberances of the forehead are well developed both in longitudinal and transversal sense, the zygomatic process of the frontal bone are well defined.  The median frontal furrow (or flute) is marked; the occipital protuberance is obvious and prominent.
Stop : The frontal-nasal depression (stop) is well adjusted, but accentuated  due to the marked apophyses of the bones of the nose and forehead, the frontal protuberances and superciliary arches.

FACIAL REGION :
Muzzle : Tapers progressively towards its extremity and its lateral sides converge slightly, so  that the muzzle itself is not pointed but truncated, with a foreface rather flat.  Its length is the same of that of the skull.  Its width, measured at half length, reaches about 50% of its length.  The height of the muzzle must not be less than half its length.  The upper profile of the muzzle, traced by the profile of the face, is straight.  The lower profile is not determined by the lip, but by the jaw.  Because of this conformation, the corner of the lips is not obvious; the mouth is well split so that the corner of the lips is at the level of an imaginary vertical from the outer angle of the eye.   The lower profile of the jaw is almost straight.
Lips : Fine and of little importance, they separate under the nose making a well opened arc which forms a third of a circle; hence the teeth in the jaw are only just covered.  The rims of the lips are well pigmented.
Jaws/Teeth : Upper and lower jaw well developed; the lower jaw (mandible) really strong and large.  Teeth white, complete and well developed dentition; incisors in regular alignment.  Scissor bite.
Cheeks : Not very prominent.
Eyes : Large; iris of a more or less dark chestnut colour depending on the colour of the coat.  They are set on an almost identical frontal plan.  Their expression is soft, serene and attentive.  The opening of the eyelid is slightly oval and the eyelid axis has an obliqueness of about 15° on the horizontal.  The eyelids fit tightly over the eye, with black pigmented rims; eyelashes are particularly long so that they can lift the hair falling from the forehead over the eyes.
Ears : Set high, semi-drooping, i.e. the last two thirds of the lobe are drooping.  When the dog is attentive, the ear lifts slightly at its base.  Triangular shape.  Length is between 11 and 13 cm, width 6.5 to 8 cm.  It shows a wide base which, towards the back, extends to where the head sets on the neck, whereas towards the front, it reaches the middle of the skull.  The tip is slightly rounded.  On the ears the hair is slightly wavy and soft; ends up forming fringes on the tip.

NECK : Upper profile is slightly convex.  The neck is a little bit shorter than the head; in effect, when extended, is not more than 80% of the length of the head.  The perimeter of the neck, taken halfway of its length, must be at least double its length.  The skin is never flabby, so always without dewlap.  Hair must be dense.

BODY :
Topline : Withers well defined from the straight topline.  The lumbar region shows a certain convexity and the rump is somewhat sloping.
Withers : High and long.  The neck harmoniously joined to the body.
Back : Straight, well muscled and of good width, its length about 30% of the height at the withers.  Lumbar region merging well with the topline and the rump.  The length of the lumbar part is about 20% of the height at the withers; it is thus definitely shorter than the dorsal part.   The width of the lumbar region is about the same as its length; muscles of the whole region are well developed.
Croup : Wide, strong, well muscled and slanting, with an inclination of 30° below the horizontal; transversal width between the hips must be 1/7th of the height at the withers.
Chest : Must be ample, brisket let down to the level of the elbows and well curved – Its perimeter (measured GO BACK TO LIST the elbows) is more by 25% than the height at the withers -  Its transversal diameter must reach 30% of the height at the withers.  Depth and height of the chest must be 50% of the height at the withers.
Underline and Belly : From the sternum, the lower profile rises very slightly towards the belly which is a little tucked up.  The length of the flanks must correspond with that of the lumbar region, which is short.  The hollowness in the flanks is minimal.
 
TAIL : Set on third part of rump, thick and strong at its root, tapering towards its extremity.  Covered with goat-like hair slightly wavy.  Its length is 60 to 65% of the height at the withers and reaches the hock easily when the dog is standing normally; though it is preferable it should be shorter.  At rest the tail is carried “sabre” fashion i.e. drooping in its first third parts, then slightly curved in its last third part.  In action the dog wags his tail like a flag.

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LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS : On the whole seen from the front and in profile the forequarters are straight.  Height from ground to elbow is 50% of the height at the withers; they are well proportioned in relation to the size of the dog.
Shoulders : Well constructed and massive.  The length of the shoulder blade is a little more than the quarter of the height at the withers and measures between 15 and 17 cm.  Its obliqueness below the horizontal is of 45 of 55 degrees.  Muscles must always be well developed.
Upper arm : Must be well muscled with strong bone construction.  Its length is 30% of the height at the withers.  Its inclination below the horizontal is between 60 and 70 degrees.  The opening of the scapula-humerus angle varies between 105 and 125 degrees.
Elbows : Must be placed in parallel  plans to the median plane of the body.  The point of the elbow must be on an imaginary vertical letdown from the caudal angle of the shoulder blade.  The opening  of the radial-humerus angle varies between about 150 and 155 degrees.  From the level of the elbow going downwards, the hair must be abundant, long and dense, with a tendance to look like flocks of hair.
Forearm : Vertical; its length is at least equal to that of the upper arm.  Muscle and bone well developed.
Carpus (Carpal joint) : Mobile and lean with the pisiform bone clearly protruding, it extends the vertical line of the forearm.
Metacarpus (Pastern) : Must be lean and mobile.  Seen from the front, must be placed in the same vertical plan as the forearm.  Seen in profile , is slightly oblique to the front.
Feet : Oval shaped (hare foot) with well closed and arched toes.  Strong nails, curved and well pigmented.  Tough pads of a dark colour.

HINDQUARTERS : On the whole, the hindquarters relate well to the size of the dog.  Limbs straight, as much in profile as seen from GO BACK TO LIST.
Upper thigh : Long, wide, well muscled with a rear profile slightly convex.  Its length exceeds about 30% of the height at the withers, and its width 75% of its length.  The aperture of the coxal-femoral joint angle varies between 100 and 105 degrees.
Leg (second thigh) : Robust bone structure and lean muscle, the groove in the muscle is well marked.  Length of leg is about 1/3 of the height at the withers.  Inclination below the horizontal is about 55 degrees.
Knee (stifle joint) : Is on perfectly straight line with the limb, is not turned either in or out.  The tibial-femoral angle is open and measures about 130 – 135 degrees.
Hock : Lateral sides of the hock joint must be really wide.  The distance from the point of the hock to the ground must not be less than 25% of the height at the withers.  Aperture of the angle of the tarsal-tibial articulation varies between 140 and 145 degrees.
Metatarsus (Rear pastern) : Its length is about 15% of the height at the withers if gauged independently; if measured from the point of the heel bone, its length is the same as that of the hock.  Its direction must be vertical.  Eventual dewclaws must be eliminated.
Feet : As the front with all the same characteristics.

 

GAIT / MOVEMENT  : Step free and long; the trot, rather extended and well maintained, is the preferred gait.  Because of its conformation, the dog can easily go into an ordinary gallop, gait which he is able to maintain for a relatively long time.

SKIN : Tight to the body, must be fine all over, but especially on the ears and forequarters.  Neck without dewlap and head without wrinkles.  Colour of the mucous membranes and third eyelids must be black.

COAT

HAIR : Very abundant, very long and different depending on the regions.  The texture is harsh, (goat hair) particularly on the front of the body.  From halfway of the chest towards the rear, and on all the limbs, the coat tends to form strands or is already in strands, depending on the subject’s age; these strands must start from the topline of the back and fall on the sides of the body.  On the head the hair is less harsh and covers the eyes.  On the limbs, the coat must be evenly distributed everywhere in the shape of soft flocks falling towards the ground; forms a kind of pilaster on the front and strands on the hindquarters, this without fringes.  The undercoat is so short and dense, it is not easy to see the skin.  Must be greasy to the touch.

COLOUR : Solid grey or with grey patches of all possible shades from a most delicate grey to a brighter shade of grey on to black; Isabel and light fawn shades are permitted.  An all black coat is allowed providing the black is really opaque (zain).  An all white coat is proscribed – White patches are tolerated as long as their surface is not more than a fifth of the total surface of the coat.

 

 

SIZE AND WEIGHT  :
Height at withers :
The ideal height at the withers for males is 60 cm with a tolerance of 2 cm, either above or below.  For the females : 56 cm also with a tolerance of 2 cm more or less.

Weight : Males :    32 – 38 kg.
             Females : 26 – 32 kg.

FAULTS : Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.
The same conditions apply to dogs with too small a head and those who amble permanently.

ELIMINATING FAULTS :

  • Facial-cranial head planes convergent or divergent. 
  • Accentuated and disfiguring prognathism.
  • Bilateral strabismus (squint).
  • Nose partially depigmented.
  • Size over or under the margins indicated by the standard.
  • Curled up tail.

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS :

  • Aggressive or overly shy.
  • Total depigmentation of nose.
  • Muzzle (foreface) definitely convex (roman nose) or concave.
  • Total bilateral depigmentation of the eyelids.
  • Wall-eyed (even one eye).
  • Jaws : upper prognathism (undershot mouth).
  • Taillessness (anury) or stump tail (brachyury); carried rolled over the back.
  • Skin : total depigmentation of the rims of the lips and of the eyes.
  • Coat colour : white, more than 1/5 of the total surface.

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

N.B. : Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

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The history

The origins of this dog like for the greater part of the dogs from shepherdesses forgiveness in the night of the times, are testimonies of the presence of these dogs on the Alps gi dallepoca of the Roman that described like a dog of medium ransom color off-white to it color this easy identifiable with the coloration caffellatte (isabella) of these dogs.
Later on these dogs risked lestinzione due to crossings with other dogs.
Towards 1900 the beginning to only recreate the race leaving they give of the subjects recovered perfectly conserved in their characteristics is morphologic that behavioural on mountains of Bergamo where the shepherds and the bovari are many gelosi of the own traditions and many legacies to their mountains on which live in perfect isolation.

Temperament and behavior

The Native of Bergamo has maintained the characteristics innate that they render lupo an animal from branco, cio, the inclination towards the personal ties and the collaboration with other members of the branco and consequently, the capacit to carry out one constant communication with the others. Of other part, the assimilation that derives from a process taming millenarian has placed the base for the understanding and the mutual exchange of information between the man and the dog.
The combination of these two factors has allowed to establish a tie that has supplied the bases for the collaboration between the two species.
Cos the relationship that created between the dog and the absolutely only master shepherdesses. Come to create a relationship that does not have need of oral commandos but to the dog enough to perceive the variations of expression of the master in order to understand of desires and to act consequently.

The Native of Bergamo, not submitted, but places itself with luomo on the same level.
When the Native of Bergamo and the shepherdesses lead their crudes oil through go them to them alpine, they are United States from the solitudine and from the isolation of mountains of Bergamo and this he has rendered their tie still   devout strongly.
In this our world of the computer that become cos superficial and lacking in the values, task that to grow with a Native of Bergamo is a highly meaningful experience for the children. Anyone possesses a fortunate Native of Bergamo moreover perch is found again with one excellent baby sitter to disposition.

The Native of Bergamo not sure a dog for all. Its aspect, the relative temperament and its sensibilit and intelligence, have transformed it in one rarit precious that not easy to understand completely.

 

STANDARD

General aspect of the dog

The shepherdesses Native of Bergamo a dog of medium size, peasant aspect, with abundant hair on all the parts of the body, strongly constructed but a lot very proporzionato. The general conformation that one of a mesomorfo, whose log is in the square, harmonic regarding the format (eterometrico) and also regarding the profiles (alloidico).

Important proportions

The length of the log measured from the tip of the shoulder (bachelor angle humeral outside) to the tip of the buttock (posterior tip of ischio) equal to the height of the garrese (the log cio is in the square). Pu to be tolerated, even if not be appreciate, an light refuse but however be not advanced to 1 or 2 m. The length of the head catches up the 4/10 of the h. of the garrese. The height of the cost one must catch up 50% of the height of the garrese.

Behavior and character

The function of the dog from Shepherdesses Native of Bergamo consists in the guide and the safekeeping of the flock, job in which evidences an exemplary behavior for attention, reflection and equilibrium. Its capacit to learn and to decide united to moderation and patience of it makes also an optimal dog from guard and from company, suitable to she employs devout varies to you. It establishes with the man one tightened tie.

Head

The length of the snout uguaglia the length. of the skull. In its together the head is introduced large and of shape parallelepipeda. The skin does not have to be thick but adherent to the below woven ones and it does not have to form wrinkles.

Cranial region

II skull is introduced leggermente wide and convex between the orecchie; also wide and rounded off to the forehead. The direction of the advanced longitudinal aces of the skull and the snout parallel. Its equal length to the length of the snout. Its width does not have to exceed met of the total length of the head. The frontal breasts are very develop as well as in longitudinal sense how much to you in cross-sectional sense; the sopracciliari arched ones are very marked. Sutura mediofrontale (or metopica) marked; the apophysis occipita them must be clean and prominente. The depression nose-fontale (stop) very joined together, but emphasized, given the development of the apophyses of the nasals and the facade, the breasts and the sopracciliari arched ones.

Region makes them

II snout goes gradatamente losing weight itself towards the estremit; its lateral faces are leggermente convergent, of way that the same snout not to tip, but log, with rather flat the front face. Its equal length to the length of the skull. Its width considered to met of its length, approximately 50% of its length. The height of the snout does not have to be inferior to the met of its length. The advanced profile of the snout determined from the profile rectilinear nasal back. The inferior profile of the snout not given from the labbro but from the jaw. For such not falling conformation the labiale commessura. Long the buccal rhyme so that the labiale commessura can arrive until meeting the perpendicular descent from the external angle of the eye. The profile of nearly rectilinear the inferior jaw.

The labbra

Thin, dipartono under the tartufo, determining an arc of 1/3 of circle to rope much long one and little is developed; so as to to hardly cover the teeth of the jaw. The labiali edges are very pigment to you.

Jaws

Both very developed; the body of the jaw also developed and wide.

Teeth

White men, complete for development and number; I recorded to you regularly aligns to you. The closing to scissor.

Cheeks

Little found

Eyes

Large, iride of devout color less dark brown or according to the color of the cape. The position subornate; the sweet and serene, careful expression. The palpebral rhyme leggermente oval, the tilted palpebral axis of approximately 15 on the horizon. The very adherent eyelids to the bulb with the margins very pigment to you in black; the eyelash is particularly long for being able to raise the hairs of the forehead that fall back in front of the eyes.

Orecchie

Inserted above the zigomatica arched one; semihanging with the two thirds party it finishes them that they remain falling: in attention the ear comes leggermente risen in prossimit of its base. The triangular shape. The length of the varied ear from 11 cm. to 13 cm. The width from cm. 6,5 to 8 cm. It introduces a wide base that posteriorly arrives to the junction of the head to the neck while front it arrives to met of the skull. Apexes leggermente round off to you. The hair on the orecchie leggermente waved, soft and ends in frange to tip.

Neck

Leggermente convex the advanced profile. E' leggermente devout short of the head: in extension in fact it does not exceed 1' 80% of the total length of the head. The perimeter of the neck to met of its length must be at least the double quantity of its length. The skin not never lassa, with absence therefore always of giogaia. The hair must be folto.

Log

Advanced line: the garrese is risen on the dorsal profile that rectilinear. It follows the region of the lombi that it introduces one sure convessit. The rump instead somewhat scoscesa.

Garrese

Long high and. Neck very fused to the log.

Back

Rectilinear and long approximately 30% of the h. to the garrese. Very muscolato and of good width. The lumbar region very knit with the line of the back and the rump. The length of the lumbar portion of approximately 20% of the h. to the garrese, perci clearly devout short of the dorsal portion. The width of nearly equal the lumbar region to its length; very developed the musculature of the region.

Rump

Wide, sturdy, muscolosa, scoscesa, tilted, cio on the horizontal of approximately 30: its cross-sectional width, between the two also, must catch up 1/7 of the h. to the garrese.

Cost

It must be wide, come down until the elbows and very cerchiato. Its perimeter (measured GO BACK TO LIST the elbows) exceeds of 25% the h. to the garrese. Its cross-sectional diameter must catch up 30% of the h. to the garrese. Profondit and the h. of the cost one they must catch up 50% of the h. to the garrese.

Inferior line

The inferior profile of the ventre from the profile of the sterno rimonta least, sicch the ventre turns out retratto little. The flanks must be long as the lumbar region (perci short). The socket of the flanks minimal.

Tail

Inserted to the last third party of the rump, large and sturdy to the root, it goes gradatamente streamlining itself until to the tip. Covered E' of light waved goat hair and. Its length between the 60 and 65% of the h. to the garrese and it arrives easy to garretto, when the dog in normal, better station if devout short. The portamento of the tail when the dog in rest, must leggermente be to "scimitarra", cio hanging for 2/3 and ricurva in the third inferior. When the dog in action, the sbandiera tail.

Limbs

Front limbs

Total examination; the appiombi front they turn out regular is observes you of profile that of forehead. The height of the front limbs to the elbow 50% of the h. to the garrese. They turn out very proporziona you to the format of the dog.

Shoulder

The strong shoulder, massiccia. The length little devout of a quarter of the h. to the garrese (from cm. 15 to 17). The inclination from 45 to 55 on the horizontal plan. The musculature must be always very developed.

Arm

It must be muscoloso and of strong skeleton. The length 30% of the h. to the garrese. Its inclination on the horizontal between 60 and 70. The bachelor-humeral angle oscillates approximately between 105 - 125.

The elbows

The elbows must find in plans parallels to the median plan to the body. The tip of the elbow must be found on the perpendicular descent of the tail angle of the bachelor. The omero-radial angle oscillates approximately between the 150 and the 155. The hair from the elbows in gi must be, abundant, along and folto, tending to the flocks.

Forearm

Vertical E'; its at least equal length to that one of the arm. The musculature and the skeleton very are developed.

Carpo

It follows the vertical of forearm, very mobile and dry line and with the very sporgente pisiforme bone.

Metacarpo

It must be dry and very mobile. Approval of source its direction must be in same the slowly vertical one passing for the forearm. Approval of profile somewhat flesso in ahead.

Foot

It has shape oval (of lepre) to fingers joined between of they and arch. Strong nails, ricurve and very pigmented. It uses dry and pigmented in dark.

Posterior limbs

Examination of together: posterior limbs very rapportati to the format of the dog. Appiombi regular is seen of profile that GO BACK TO LIST.

Thigh

Long, wide, covered of muscles, with leggermente convex the posterior margin. Its length exceeds approximately 30% of the h. to the garrese, and its width 75% of its length. The coxo-femoral angle oscillates between the 100 and the 105.

Leg

It strongly has dry skeleton, muscles and very marked gambale rabbet. Its length of approximately 1/3 of the h. to the garrese. Its inclination on the horizontal of 55 approximately.

Ginocchio

The ginocchio it is maintained perpendicularly in perfect with the limb and it does not have to have some in within of in outside. The febimoro-tibiale angle opened and the Hair its value of 130 - 135 approximately.

Garretto

The faces of the garretto must be very wide. The height from the tip of the garretto to earth does not have to be inferior to 25% of the h. to the garrese. The angle of the tibio-tarsica articulation oscillates between the 140 and the 145.

Metatarso

Its length approximately 15% of the h. to the garrese. Considering the metatarso to if being; various if measured to the tip of the heel, its equal length to that one of the garretto. Its direction must be vertical. The spur, if present, must be removed.

Foot

Like the front one and with all requirement of this.

Sailing points

Melted and long step; devout the trot lengthened and the much resistant used sailing point enough. For its same conformation pu to pass to the ordinary gallop easy that maintains along relatively.

Skin

Supporter with the body, must be thin in every region, especially on the orecchie and the front limbs. Neck without giogaia and head without wrinkles. The pigment of the mucosae and the sclerose must be black.

Cape

Hair

A lot abundant, a lot along and diversified. The rough webbing (goat) in particular on the met front of the log. From met of the thorax for all the posterior part of the body, and for all the limbs stretch to the flocks or gi to flocks, in relation to ET of the subject: the flocks must leave from the sommit of the dorsal line, falling back on the sidewalls of the log. On the head the less rough hair and falls back on the eyes covering them. On the limbs the hair must uniform be distributed on all the parts to soft ribbons, be directed towards earth, to column, on the front one and to flocks on the posterior one, without to form frange. The sottopelo much short and folto not to leave easy to notice the skin. It must be untuoso to the tact

Color of the mantle

Color uniform gray or to specks of all the devout gradazioni from the tenuous ones of gray until the much luminosity and to the black one, also with shadings isabella and fulvo clearly. Admitted E' opaque the black uniform color purch (zaino). The color proscritto uniform white man. The specks are tolerated white women when the surface of the same ones does not exceed the fifth of the surface total of the cape.

Ransom and weight

Stature

The height to the ideal garrese for the males of 60 cm. with 2 cm. of tolerance in excess and defect. For the females of cm. always 56, with 2 cm. of tolerance in devout or less.

Weight

Kg Males. 32-38. Kg females. 26-32.

The males must very have two testicoli of normal aspect and reductions in the scroto.

Defects

Every shunting line from the characteristics indicated in the description of the several regions constitutes a defect, that it must be penalized in the judgment in connection with its gravit and to its spread cos like the too much small head and continued Ambio.

Eliminatori defects

Head: convergent aces skull-facciali or divergent. Emphasized and deturpante Prognatismo. Bilateral strabismus. Tartufo with depigmentation, eterocromia of the iride mono and bilateral. Stature: not comprised within the prescribed limits, it calculates the tolerance margins to you. Tail to bugle.

Defects from disqualification

tartufo: depigmentation total. Nasal cane: decidedly concave montonina or. Depigmentation bilateral total of the eyelids, eye gazzuolo (also a single eye). Jaws: enognatismo. Sexual organs: criptorchidismo, monorchidismo, obvious deficiency of one or all and the two testicoli. Tail: anurismo, brachiurismo, capacity rolled up on the back. Color of the mantle: white man for one greater surface of 1/5 of the surface total. Skin: depigmentation total of the labiali margins or depigmentation bilateral total of the eyelids.

 

 
 

 

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