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MAREMMA AND THE ABBRUZES SHEEPDOG

(Cane da Pastore Maremmano-Abruzzese)


Over Lucky di Nivenus of prop. Trionfatore Francisco Vixens Best in Show to the European of Genoa

FCI Standard N° 201 / 15.09.1992 / GB

 

 

TRANSLATION : Mrs. Peggy Davis.

ORIGIN : Italy.

DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE ORIGINAL VALID STANDARD : 27.11.1989.

UTILIZATION : Shepherd dog used mainly for the protection of
flocks and guarding of properties.

CLASSIFICATION F.C.I. :              Group   1          Sheepdogs and cattledogs
                                                              except Swiss cattledogs.
                                             Section   1  Sheepdogs.
                                             Without working trial.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY :  This ancient breed of dogs who guard flocks comes from shepherd dogs actually still used in the Abruzzes where the breeding of sheep is still thriving even in these days, and sheepdogs which existed yesteryear in the region of the Tuscan Maremma and in that of Latium.  Most especially since 1860, the seasonal moving of livestock from one region to another has favoured the developing of a natural crossing of those two primitive breeds.

GENERAL APPEARANCE : The Maremma and Abruzzes shepherd dog is a big dog, strongly built of a rustic appearance, at the same time majestic and really typical.  On the whole his shape, of average proportions, is that of a heavy dog, whose body is longer than the height at the withers; is balanced as much in size (heterometry = normal proportions between the size and different parts of the body) as to the profiles (alloidism = concordance between the profiles of the head and the body).

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS : The length of the head reaches the 4/10 of the height at the withers; the length of the muzzle is 1/10th less than that of the skull; the body length is more by 1/18th than the height at the withers. 
Depth of thorax is slightly less than half the height at the withers.  (For instance : for a dog of 68 cm the depth is about 32 cm).

BEHAVIOUR AND TEMPERAMENT : His principal function as a guard and defense dog of flocks and property in general, asserts itself in the manner he accomplishes these tasks, with perception, he can also show a devoted attachment to his master and all his entourage.

HEAD : On the whole, the head is large and flat, of conical shape, reminiscing of that of a polar bear.

CRANIAL REGION :
Skull : Is of great width with lateral sides slightly bulging.  In profile, is also convex.  The upper longitudinal axes of the skull and muzzle are slightly divergent, which makes the profile of the head slightly convex.
The superciliary arches are moderately marked.  The medio-frontal furrow line is slightly marked.  The occipital crest is only just visible.
Stop : The frontal-nasal depression only just accentuated and the frontal-nasal angle is always very open.

FACIAL REGION :
Nose : Rather big, in line of the muzzle, with large well-opened nostrils, moist and cool, coloured black.  In profile must not protrude beyond the front marginal of the lips.
Muzzle : Its length is by 1/10th less than that of the skull.  Its depth, measured at the level of the corner of the lips, must reach half its length.  Its width decreases progressively according to the convergence of the lateral sides of the muzzle towards the front, but nevertheless keeping a flat fore surface.  The suborbital region is slightly chiselled.
Lips : Seen from the front, the upper lips, at their junction point, determine by their lower edge a semicircle of very short radius.  Slightly developed, they barely cover the teeth of the jaw, and, therefore, the corner of the lips is only lightly accentuated. 

Consequently the lower lateral profile is only defined by the lips in its fore part, in its rear part it is defined by the lower jaw and the corner of the lips.  The rims of the lips are black.
Jaws : Look strong, normally developed, with incisors set straight, well aligned of good size and complete in number.
Teeth : White, strong – scissor bite.
Cheeks : Moderately visible.
Eyes : Not large in relation to the size of the dog; the iris is of an ocre colour or chestnut brown.  The eye, in lateral position, is neither deep set nor protruding.  Lively and attentive expression.  Eyelid opening is almond shaped, with black eyelid rims.
Ears : Set very high over the zygomatic arches, they are hanging but very mobile.  Triangular shape (in V), their extremities forming a narrow point never rounded; they are small in relation to the size of the dog.  For a medium size dog their length must not go beyond 12 cm.  The ear attachment is of medium width.  Cropped ears tolerated only in dogs really used as herd dogs.

NECK : Upper profile moderately arched.  Its length does not go beyond the 8/10 of the length of the head, which means that the neck is always shorter than the head.  It is thick, very strong muscular and always without dewlap; covered with long and dense hair forming a collar particularly obvious in males.

BODY : Solidly constructed, its length is more by 1/18 than the height at the withers.
Top line : Straight from withers to rump where it becomes somewhat sloping.
Withers : Slightly above from the topline; wide because of the distance separating the shoulder blades.
Back : Straight in profile, length reaches about 32% of the height at the withers.  The loin which merges perfectly with the topline has a slightly curved profile with well developed muscled in width.  The loin reaches in length 1/5 of the height at the withers and its width is nearly equal.
Croup : Wide, strong and well muscled.  Its inclination from the hip to the tail set is of 20° increasing to 30° and more if we refer to the ileum-ischium line; that is why the rump of the Maremma and Abruzzes shepherd dog must be qualified as sloping.
Chest : Ample, descending to level of elbows, deep and well-rounded at mid-height.  Its circumference must be more than ¼ of the height at the withers; its maximum width at mid-height must reach at least the 32% of the height at the withers, then decreases progressively downwards while retaining a good width in the sternal region.  Its depth must reach half the height at the withers.  The ribs are well sprung and oblique with inter-costal spaces of good width; the last false ribs are long, oblique and well opened.
Underline and Belly : The sternum-ventral profile is characterised by a long sternal line in the shape of an arc of a circle of very big radius rising slightly towards the belly.

TAIL : Low set due to the sloping rump, in normal stand reaching below the level of the hock.  Hanging when dog stationary; carried level with back line with a rather strongly hooked extremity when the dog is in action.  Well furnished with dense hairs without fringes.

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LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS : Straight limbs from the front and in profile; forequarters well balanced in relation to the body, and the various parts of the forequarters are well proportioned between them.
Shoulders : Long, oblique with powerful muscles.  Must be really free in movement.  In length measures about ¼ of the height at the withers. Its obliqueness below the horizontal is of 50° to 60°.
Upperarm : Set close to the body in its upper two thirds, with powerful muscles.  Its obliqueness below the horizontal varies between 55° and 60°; its length measures about the 30% of the height at the withers.  Its position is more or less parallel with the median plane of the body.  The scapula-humeral angle varies between 105° and 120°.
Elbows : Normally close to the chest, they are covered with a soft loose skin.  Their position must be parallel to the median plane of the body; the point of the elbow must be on an imaginary vertical line starting at the rear angle of the shoulder blade.  The opening of the humeral-radial angle varies between 145° and 150°.
Forearm : Straight, and vertical, heavily boned.  Its length is slightly more than the length of the upperarm, while being a little less of a third of the height at the withers.  The front leg from ground to elbow measures 52,8% of the height at the withers.
Carpus (Carpal joint) : In extension of the vertical of the forearm.  Strong, clean, smooth and of good thickness; the pisiform bone is clearly protruding.
Metacarpus (Pastern): Its length must never be less to 1/6 of the foreleg measured from ground to elbow.  It is lean with a minimum of sub-cutaneous tissue.  Seen in profile is slightly oblique towards the front.
Feet : Large, of roundish shape, well closed toes, covered with short thick hair, nails preferably black.  Chestnut colour is tolerated.

HINDQUARTERS : Seen as a whole : limbs straight when seen from the GO BACK TO LIST and in profile.  The general aspect is in proportion with the body, and the various parts of the hindquarters are harmonious.
Thigh : Long, wide protruding muscles and a rear edge slightly convex.  Its width, measured from edge to edge, reaches ¾ of its length.  It is a little oblique from top to bottom and rear to front; the coxal-femoral (hip bone) angle is about 100°.
Second thigh : Its length, a little shorter than the thigh, corresponds to 32,5% of the height at the withers.  Its obliqueness below the horizontal is about 60°.  Strong bone, muscles lean and the groove in the leg well marked.
Knee : Perfectly in the vertical of the limb, without internal or external rotation.  The fermoral-tibial angle rather well opened, varies between 135° and 140°.
Hock joint : Quite thick, with broad lateral faces.  The angle opening varies between 140° and 150°.
Metatarsus (Rear pastern) : Strong, lean and broad.  Its length reaches 30,9% of the height at the withers.  Eventual dewclaws must be eliminated.
Feet : Like the front but more oval.

 

GAIT/MOVEMENT : Walk and extended trot.

SKIN : Tight to all parts of the body; rather thick.  Black pigmentation of the mucous membranes, third eyelids as well as the central and toe pads.

COAT

HAIR : Very well furnished.  Hair long, rather harsh to the touch, closer to straight horse hair, flat to the body; slight wave is tolerated.  The hairs form an important collar around the neck and fringes of limited length on the edge of the hindquarters.  But the hair is short on the muzzle, on the skull, the ears and front edge of the limbs.  On the body the length of the hair reaches 8 cm.  The undercoat is only in winter abundant.

COLOUR : Solid white.  Shades of ivory, pale orange or lemon are tolerated but only in certain limits.

SIZE AND WEIGHT :
Height at the withers : Males : 65 to 73 cm. Females : 60 to 68 cm.
Weight :                     Males : 35 to 45 kg.  Females : 30 to 40 kg.

FAULTS : Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.

SEVERE FAULTS :

  • Head : Cranial-facial axes convergent, accentuated and disfiguring prognathism.
  • Tail : Rolled over the back.
  • Gait : Dog which paces continuously.
  • Size : Over or below the limits fixed by the standard.

 

 

ELIMINATING FAULTS :

  • Aggressive or overly shy.
  • Nose : Completely depigmented.
  • Muzzle : Definitely convex or concave.
  • Eyes : Moderate or bilateral depigmentation of the eyelids.  Wall eye.  Bilaterally cross-eyed.
  • Jaws : Undershot mouth.
  • Tail : Tailless or short tail, whether congenital or docked.
  • Coat : Curly.
  • Colour : Isabella coat; well defined patches or Isabella or ivory colour.  Black shadings.

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

N.B. : Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Automatic translate from Inseparabile.com

Defender of the crudes oil from the lupo, its places of origin are the sour mountains dAbruzzo like i   pastures of the Fen. Its character somiglia a lot to that one of the shepherds with which he has always lived: independent and fierce.

THE CHARACTER  

Much fierce, territorial, alert, wild and rather schivo one in the comparisons of the strangers, lover of the master but never submitted and it maintains always one sure independence, in particular the male, than also devout large and majestic of the female.

The history  

For centuries it has accompanied the transumanti shepherds dAbruzzo that svernavano in Fen, and those pugliesi. Its mantle white man allowed to easily distinguish it from the lupo also to the twilight. On its ancient origins the opinions are not agree; it could be reached carried from the Roman as a result of some shipment in Oriente.in Europe or with the Asian nomads us

 

 

THE OFFICIAL STANDARD

Important proportions

The length of the head catches up the 4/10 of the Height; the length of the inferior snout of a tenth one regarding the length of the skull, the length of the log exceeds the Height of 1/18 of such height. The height of the leggermente inferior cost one to 50% of the Height. (Es. in one dog of cm. 68 to, the garrese ones, the height of the cost one of cm. 32 approximately).

Behavior and character

Its function precipua of dog from guard and defense of the flock and the propriet in kind is evidenced in the development of this task that it always acquits with perspicacity, courage and decision. Its fierce and averse character even if to the submission, knows also to express in a devout person attachment to the master and us that he encircles it.

head

In its with the large and flat head of conical shape and it remembers the head of the bear white man.

  1. Cranial region

    The skull, introduces wide nel its horizontal diameter somewhat, its sidewalls are introduced somewhat convex and also observed of profile the skull it introduces itself convex. The behavior of the advanced longitudinal aces denunciation one light divergence of the advanced longitudinal axis of the skull regarding the advanced longitudinal axis of the snout. The said, somewhat convex advanced profile like gi. The sopracciliari arched ones moderately are pointed out. I furrow little marked medium-facade. Much little obvious the crest occipita them.

    Stop

    The depression nose-facade must little be emphasized. The angle nose-facade always much open.

  2. Region makes them

    Tartufo and nose

    Enough large, on the same line of the nasal cane, with very open and large narici, humid and fresh, pigmented in black. Approval of profile does not have to sporgere on the front vertical line of the labbra; its front face is found on same the slowly vertical one of the front face of the snout.

    snout

    Its inferior length of 1/10 to the length of the head. Its profondit or height, measured to level of the commessura must catch up the 5/10 of its length. Its width determined from the course of its lateral faces that stretch to the convergence, also conserving the front face of the snout one still flat surface. The region sottorbita them is introduced somewhat cesellata.

    Labbra

    Labbra the advanced sights of forehead determine to their inferior margin, cio to their conjunction, a semicircle to rope much grip. Little they are developed in height, they hardly cover the teeth of the jaw and perci the little emphasized labiale commessura. Consequently the inferior lateral profile of the snout given from the labbra only front while posteriorly given from the jaw and the labiale commessura. The labiali margins are pigment to you in black.

    Jaws

    Of appearance sturdy, with normal development and normal system of I recorded to you, regularly it aligns and complete for development and number to you.

    Cheeks

    Moderately obvious

    Teeth

    Teeth white men, sturdy, closing to scissor.

    Eyes

    Not large in connection with the size of the dog, iride of color ocher or dark brown. Lateral position with sporgente bulb infossato some. Intelligent and alert expression. The palpebral rhyme to almond with palpebral margins pigments to you in black.

    Orecchie

    They are found inserted a lot above arched zigomatica, hanging but many furnitures. The triangular shape (to V) with apexes to tight tip and never widely rounds off to you: the orecchie are small regarding the size of the dog; the length of the ear in a dog of medium stature does not have to exceed i 12 cm. The base of medium wide insertion. Tolerated E' the ear cut limitedly to the dogs employs you for the job of the flock.

Neck

The moderately convessilineo advanced profile. Its length short does not exceed the 8/10 of the length of the head, perci always devout of such length. Large E', much fort and muscolato, always free from giogaia, and covered of long hair and folto that form collar, particularly showy in the male.

Log

Strongly constructed, its length exceeds of 1/18 the h. to the garrese.

Advanced line

Rectilinear from the garrese towards the rump, than instead somewhat scoscesa.

Garrese

Little elevated on the line of the back: it turns out wide for the distance between they of the tips of the bachelor.

Back

The profile of the straight back. Its length of approximately 32% of the h. to the garrese. The lombi very they are fused with the line of the back: they introduce only one light convessit seen of profile; the lombi they have muscles very develops to you in width. The length of the lombi of 1/5 of the h. to the garrese, while their width equals nearly the length.

Rump

Wide, sturdy, muscolosa. Its inclination (if considered from the hip to the insertion of the tail) of 20 on the horizontal; still devout tilted (30 and devout ones) if considered on the line ileus-ischio. Perci the rump of the p. abruzzese maremmano must be defined guaranteed.

Cost

Wide, coming down until to the level of the elbow, deep, very convex, to met of its height. The circumference of the cost one must be of approximately 1/4 advanced of the Height and the its cross-sectional diameter (than maximum to met of its height) must at least catch up 32% of the h. to the garrese and it goes little diminishing towards the bottom to allow still wide the sternale region. Its profondit must catch up 50% of the h. to the garrese. The coasts are very try and oblique; the intercostal spaces are very extensive and the last false coasts, long, oblique and very opened.

Inferior profile

The sterno-ventral profile evidences long a sternale region that develops to semicircle to rope much wide one, that it goes sweetly rimontando towards the abdomen.

Tail

Its insertion, date the guaranteed, situated rump low and exceeds the garretto of the dog in normal station; hanging estate in rest, instead capacity on the line of the back in the excitation, with the tip enough ricurva. E' very guarnita of hair folto without frange.

LIMBS

  1. Front limbs

    Appiombi correct is that of side. The development of the limbs in good proportion with the somatico development and the single relative regions to sayings limbs it is pure between they.

    Shoulder

    The shoulder must be long, tilted, supplied of strong muscles and very free in the movements. Its length of approximately 1/4 of the h. to the garrese. Its inclination from 50 to 60 on the horizontal.

    Arm

    Very knit to the log in its two advanced thirds party, supplied of strong muscles. Its obliquit varies from 55 to 60 on the horizontal. Its length approximately 30% of the h. to the garrese. Its direction nearly parallel to the median plan of the body. The bachelor-humeral angle oscillates between the 105 and the 120.

    Elbows

    The elbows are normally, supporters with the cost one, covered of, soft and rilassata skin. They must be found in a flat parallel to the median plan of the body. The tip of the elbow must be found on the perpendicular descent from the tail angle of the bachelor. The omero-radial angle oscillates between the 145 and the 150.

    Forearm

    Vertical straight line follows one; it has skeleton strongly. Its leggermente advanced length to the length of the omero and little less than 1/3 of the h. to the garrese. The h. of all the front limb to the elbow of 52.8% of the h. to the garrese.

    Carpo

    It is found on the vertical line of the forearm. Strong, dry, smooth E', of good thickness, with very sporgente pisiforme bone.

    Metacarpo

    Its length not never inferior to 1/6 of the h. of all the limb to the elbow. Very dry E', with cellular woven minimum subcutaneous. Approval of profile is introduced leggermente spread.

    . Piede

    Large, of rotondeggiante shape. It has fingers very locked between of they, covered of short and driven in hair. Nails preferibilmente pigmented in black: tolerated the pigment brown.

  2. Posterior limbs

    The appiombi it is of forehead that of profile must turn out always correct. The development of the posterior limbs very proporzionato to the body and also very proporzionate between they turns out the various regions relating to the limbs.

    Thigh

    Long, wide, covered of salienti muscles, with leggermente convex posterior margin. Its width (measured between its external faces, from a margin to the other) catches up the 3/4 of its length. Its somewhat oblique direction from the high low and GO BACK TO LIST in ahead. The coxo-femoral angle of approximately 100.

    Leg

    Its little inferior length to that one of the thigh cio to say 32.5% of the h. to the garrese. Its inclination of approximately 60 on the horizontal. The strong skeleton and the dry musculature, with marked gambale rabbet.

    Ginocchio

    It must be found perpendicularly in perfect with the limb: it does not have to turn out some had some towards the inside towards the outside. The femoro-tibiale angle somewhat opened and its opening oscillate between the 135 and the 140.

    Garretto

    Its height of 30.9% of the h. to the garrese. The many wide its faces. Of good thickness. The tibio-metatarsico angle oscillates between the 140 and the 150.

    Metatarso

    Sturdy, dry wide. Its length given from the h. of the garretto. Spurs to amputate if present.

    . Piede

    Like for front but devout the oval.

Sailing points

Long step, lengthened trot.

Skin

Very adherent to the body and in every region. Rather thick. The pigment of the mucosae and the sclerose must be black: equally it is said for them uses of the digital bearings plantari them and.

Cape

Hair

A lot abundant, along, rather rough to the tact, very adherent to the body: tolerated one light undulation. Form a rich limited collar around the neck and frange on the posterior margin of the limbs. Instead short E' on the snout, the skull, the ears, the front margin of all the limbs. The webbing of the semivitrea hair. The length of the hair on the log catches up 8 cm. The sottopelo abundant only in the winter season.

Color

Unicolore white man. Tolerated the shadings ivory or orange pale or lemon, purch in limited number.

RANSOM And WEIGHT

Stature to the garrese

In i males from cm. 65 to cm. 73 to the garrese, in the females from cm. 60 to cm., 68 to the garrese.

Weight

For the males from 35-45 Kg. Females from 30-40 Kg. The males must very have two testicoli of normal aspect and reductions in the scroto.

DEFECTS

Every shunting line from the characteristics indicated in the description of the several regions constitutes a defect that must be penalized in the judgment in connection with its gravit and to its spread, cos like continued Ambio or the presence of the spurs.

  1. DEFECTS ELIMINATORI

    Head: convergent aces skull-facciali, emphasized prognatismo deturpante. Tail: capacity rolled up on the back. Stature: to of over or under the limits it indicates to you. Sailing point: continued Ambio.

  2. Defects from disqualification

    tartufo: depigmentation total. Nasal cane: decidedly concave montonina or. Eyes: moderate or bilateral depigmentation of the eyelids. Gazzuolo. Bilateral strabismus. Jaws: enognatismo. Sexual organs: criptorchidismo monorchidismo, obvious deficiency of development of one or all and the two testicoli. Tail: anurismo, brachiurismo, are congenital that it crafts them. Hair: ricciuto. Color: cape isabella. Spots isabella or very clean ivory to margin. Shadings of black color

 
 

 

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