DOMESTIC PULCI, ZECCHE AND ANIMALS...
Scope of the FAQ: to supply information on the parasatisms due to PULCI and ZECCHE. The FAQ generalized for several domestic animals [ dogs, cats, coniglietti... ]. Little sections - specifically NOT regarding the cats have been eliminated (some products USA pesticides for dogs). E' be left one regarding section i coniglietti , perch pu to apply itself very well to the cats. And then perch they are simpati to us... :)) The greater part of the sections reported to the domestic Mammals is remained unchanged, with simple warnings - where demanded regarding single the species in object.
YOU ASK ALWAYS COUNCIL THE VETERINARY BEFORE ACQUIRING PRODUCED PESTICIDES!
The FAQ subdivided in two main sections:
- INFESTAZIONE FROM PULCI...
- INFESTAZIONE FROM ZECCHE...
INFESTAZIONE FROM PULCI ... [ you go to summary ]
Characteristics and vital cycle [ index ]
[ NdT: The pulci they are small land bugs lacking in wings, pertaining to the order of the Afantteri: nearly passings as a result of the massive use of the DDT and other insecticides, is currently - to the par of the pidocchi- in phase of riespansione. In the fight against of they of fundamental importance knowing and holding present the several ones is made of their VITAL CYCLE. They cross in fact complete metamorphoses, characterized ciascuna from own peculiarit:
- EGGS: they are ovoidali, smooth and white women. Perch is fecund, necessary that the adult female carries out a blood meal on specific host : the ovideposizione comes repeated devout times, and in ognuna they come rilasciate until 12 eggs. One brace of adult bugs pu to generate 20,000 pulci in 3 months! The eggs come placed on the fur of the animal, glue to the piume or the hairs, or - devout frequently projected far away: they often fall cos on the land, or devout on the woven ones and the carpets... Schiudono after 2-12 days getting rid the larve.
- LARVE: they are long 3-4mm, they have the aspect of small visible worms to eye knot, you deprive of eyes and feet. Their boccale apparatus of masticatory type, therefore in this stage of development their nutriment constituted from microscopical residual of organic detritus presents on the superficial ones of schiusa: also a pulizia scrupulous of the house sufficient nutriment leaves however they. Such superficial they must have characteristics of umidit relatively high, approximately 80%. The larve eventually remained on the animal they are not never behaved from ematfagi (= mangiatori of blood ), preferringinstead to nourish itself of hairs or piume bathed in light state of decomposition.
- INCISTAMENTO: The larve they endure 2 cycles of dumb in a period comprised between the 2 and 200 days: at the moment of the ninfsi, the greater part of the larve mature is covered of varies detritus to you legacies with with little silk threads, in risen of rudimentale cocoon (or puprio), in which they remain for a period of variable time from 1 week to 1 year, second the environmental conditions them. To the inside of the cocoon - stage of incistamento - the young people pulci are INVULNERABILI to every type of insecticide and the lowest temperatures, sometimes also to the freezing. The extended and efficient incistamento cos explains the reason for which the pulci they are extremely difficult to uproot from the domestic atmosphere.
- PUPE (nymphs or crislidi): Temperatures acclimatize them favorable and/or the opportunit of a host to parassitare they can induce the imbozzolate nymphs to emerge: the pupe as soon as you form yourselves are white women, then gradually scuriscono until assuming the own coloration of the adult bug. They can be found in great number on the superficial ones of schiusa, lain in wait for in attended - they have great resistance to the fast to jump on the animal.
- ADULTS: they have sclerificato and a strongly covered superficial tegumento of hairs, tawny-rossastro or tawny-yellowish color: approval frontally their body appears very crushed. They are nearly lacking in eyes, with a boccale apparatus action to the perforation of the skin and the suzione of the blood. Being unprovided of wings, they use the attitude to the jump of long legs like means in order to move itself in the atmosphere or from an animal to the other: proportionally to their dimensions, they can detach enormous leaps!
Poich to the adult stage the Afantteri is always ematfagi, often temporary (= they often change host ), important from the point of view epidemiologist to know of the specificit parasitic. Normally, they are ectoparassiti (= you adorned to you external ) clearly termfili, cio they are attracted from the heat of the body of much species of Vertebrati omeotrmi (= to constant temperature ), comprised man: whichever animal in hot blood comes massively attacked and infested until the improbable one. Pu to come used like conveyor, finch they do not catch up specific host definitive: the Carnivorous predators often "accommodate" the Afantteri of the species pregiven. If the malcapitato one instead just specific host , it comes literally divorato alive, perch for how many efforts make not to succeed devout to get rid of you adorned that they are insinuates to you to you between hairs, piume or... dressed: the pulci they move with incredible agilit, and they succeed to escape nearly always to the taken one.
[ From: Great Illustrated Encyclopedia Of the Animals - Invertebrate vol. II - Mondadori and, NdT
From the larvale stage to that adult time months pass in average approximately 3-6: in order to eliminate the danger pulci necessary to interrupt this cycle. To the practical action, this means to have to repeat a determined treatment to regular intervals, for being sure to eliminate is the eggs that the larve escaped to the attacks previous pesticides.
How and where they can be taken? [ index ]
They are found in great number lain in wait for on the land: they infest the lairs of the Mammals, the nests of the Birds, the deserted houses, the cracks of the old buildings, the granaries, the tree log, the piccionaie, the hen houses, the warehouses, the basements attend to you from cats and rats and finally the private rooms of anyone have of the domestic animals...
The pulci they penetrate to the inside of the rooms in many ways: also the animals that never - or only very rarely they exit of house, like the apartment cats, can come some easy infests to you. The way of simple income devout in is made to give ' passaggio' hidden in your indumenti or footwear, or in the fur of other animals in visit.
In case of trasloco in one new room, then to keep in mind the possibilit that previous animals can have left the pulci in ' eredit': the larve they can resist to the dormiente state - incistite- for amazingly long periods of time, under one large variet of conditions.
Which dangers involve? [ index ]
[ NdT: In the Afantteri - as in all the Arthropods ematfagi- are distinguished between the damage provoked like actors from that one provoked like carriers of diseases:
- like ACTORS: nearly all the ectoparassite species (= you adorned to you external ) they are injurious, perch produce a insopportabile pruritus: very many animals and persons have not infrequently serious reactions of allergic sensibilizzazione also to the proteiche substances presents in salted left from their bite.
puppys : the puppys hardly been born [ dogs and cats ], or many young people, can run MORTAL dangers consequent THEM to an aggressive infestazione: they are enough small from being able to develop to dangerous ANEMIAS nel.giro.di little hours from birth! Always opportune E' to try to prevent the problem maintaining the free mother from the pulci (washed giacigli, covered of and coverings of the pillows at least to alternate days). If you have cucciolo devout a small of 8-10 weeks affection from a strict infestazione consulted * immediatamente* the veterinary: Not tried no treatment without to ask its opinion! ANEMIA SYMPTOMS: the small appear lethargic, weak people, and their oral mucosae are in kind pales or esangui. It could before be issue of HOURS that they can DIE. A good test in order to estimate the state of URGENCY of pressare a finger on the advanced gum, raising hardly the labbro: if it employs devout of a pair of second in order returning rose, portateli from the vet! NOW!!
Also the endoparassite species (= you adorned to you inner ), that they penetrate UNDER skin ivi incistendosi produce serious damages much: cutaneous pustole, necrosis, septicaemia and sometimes cancrena. An example: the female of the species Dermatophillus - Tunga penetrans or "pulce penetrating" - original of the intertropical America but by now diffused ovunque, extremely dangerous perch it penetrates under the cute in the calloused zones, leaving to only emerge the estremit of the full egg abdomen. A fertilized female and is satiated of blood pu to catch up the dimensions of a pea: once expelled eggs, abandons the host spontaneously, leaving like memory local inflammation and ulcerose lesions. If the bug comes crushed while to the inside of the skin, the possibilit is had of development of cancrene and serious necroses.
- like CARRIERS: in nearly all the species the tied pathological action above all to the fact that during the suzione emit a regurgitation and deiezioni that can contain microorganisms to action particularly virulenta. The inoculazione of the agents infects to you happens not much through the puncture in s, but through the grattamento provoked from the insopportabile pruritus with consequent lesions: it is had for cos saying car-inoculazione rising is also involuntary from part of the parassitato animal.
Between the transmissible acute infectious diseases from the studied species devout, Xenopsylla cheopis or "pulce of the rape", we have:
- tifo they wall [ caused from Rickettsia mooseri ],
- tularema [ caused from transmitted Pasteurella tularensis and also for cutaneous and/or congiuntivale contact with animals it infects ],
- caused plague [ from Pasteurella pestis ].
The species Pulex irritans - or "pulce of the man" - a small bug of the family Pulicidae , along 2 milimeter, of characteristic tawny color: it lives is on the Man who on several domestic Mammals (dog, cat, horse, pig) and sometimes also on the wild animals us. Pu anch' it to transmit to the bubbonica plague and the tifo walls, and perhaps also other pathogenic microorganisms.
Two species of the sort Ctenocephalides they are parasitic respective of the dog - Ctenocephalides
Dogss or "pulce of the dog" - and of the cat - Ctenocephalides felis or "pulce of the cat" - but they attack at least 70 species of Carnivores, nonch the Man. Anch' they are able of inoculare the bacillus of the plague.
[ From: Great Illustrated Encyclopedia Of the Animals - Invertebrate vol. II - Mondadori and, NdT
Since the pulci they act as from carriers for innumerevoli you adorned and diseases to you, to maintain your free animal from the pulci means also to avoid the possibilit that it can contract one of these.
How to characterize them? [ index ]
In kind, the first suspicion is necessary when the dog or the house cat begins grattar furiously and of frequent...
In order to assess if the cause of this is a infestazione of pulci on the fur, separated with the hand the hair until catching a glimpse the cute, and controlled for the presence:
- of small insettini brown that move fastly: pulci! : (
- of very small "dark" powder particles: they are the deiezioni of the pulci, the products of refusal of the digested blood.
- If you support on a fazzolettino of bathed paper, assume coloration dark red rust or.
- of cutaneous irritations: it salted of the pulci and the ollowing grattamento and mordicchiamento of the animal provoke to reddenings and irritations on the cute, and even - in serious the devout cases some zones glabre with fall of the hair.
In alternative, possible to use an appropriate comb anti-pulci, with fine metallic teeth.
In the infestazioni from pulci moreover sure possible to recover the "dark powder", pulci adult and even the larve also in the places where your animal usual to sleep or to park. Of the blood disseccato in the orecchie it could instead be indication of parassitsi from acarus: you would have to consult the how much before veterinary to this purpose.
Countermeasures and precautions [ index ]
They depend in great part from the type of pulce with which it is had to that to make: many of the species devout studied - above all Xenopsylla cheopis or "pulce of the rape", main emitter of the bubbonica plague and the tifo walls from rat -- >topo and from rat -- >uomo- is ectoparassiti temporary , cio they pass only a part of their life on the fur of the domestic animals.
But the pulci that devout commonly dogs and cats in North America and Europe find themselves on they belong to the species Ctenocephalides, and normally - even if cos very not studied as the previous one seems to preprefer like hosts specific just our companions on all fours, passing all normally their adult life on they. The problem is moreover the eggs that come placed on the fur and from scattered here in turn for house and the garden, cosicch easy to find again all very soon the infested house: cucce, giacigli, divani, carpets, beds, pillows...
The possible countermeasures can roughly be divided in:
- participations pesticides on atmosphere [ v. beyond ]
- participations pesticides on animal [ v. beyond ]
FURNISHING: Residing in areas possibly exposed to the danger pulci, to keep in mind - in the choice of the furnishing that carpets, blankets, and imbottiti furnitures are the first places where they nest eggs. E' good norm to choose sfoderabili and/or easy washable coverings, and to supply - in case of infestazione in action to wash them every week: of the towels or burlaps spread in the places where the animal generally sdraia to rest itself can however supplire effectively, and help to eliminate the greater part of eggs.
In order to prevent that the larve they can be incistire in the carpets, it temporary eliminates them to you with to any covering similare: where it was not possible, to es. in the case of the moquette, profit one daily pulizia with the vacuum cleaner or the carpet cleaner, having for cure to throw via the paper bag. E' possible to address to a company of pulizie in order to make to execute a pulizia professional, but this baster in the case present pulci gi was unfortunately not incistite, at least finch does not come uses produced you specifically studies you for their elimination. However, a sure effect in the physical removal of the larve and residual the microscopical ones of food that constitutes their main alimentary source obtains, that in adding to other methods pu to be of valid aid.
In the serious or recurrent cases devout - although this is one all extreme solution and not always practicable advisable to remove definitively carpets and moquette and to replace them with floor tiles, parquet or similar.
E' moreover always possible to incur in a infestazione from pulci traslocando in houses or apartments previously infests to you. In such opportune case to deal for time the place with pesticides spray, before carrying out the effective trasloco. For es. if the house deserted for a sufficient time to the natural elimination of all the pulci adult, the only problem can be the larve incistite: the solo methoprene would have to be sufficient. In contrary case it must resort to an insecticide to devout wide phantom of action.
Treatments pesticides [ index ]
There are many methods in order to face the problem pulci: in some it is made resorted to chemical insecticides of synthesis, in others to natural insecticides.
Nobody of these pu considered of for s absolutely winning: often opportune to arrange various "foreheads of attack" in order to obtain the scope. Both the approaches, "natural" or "chemical", introduce advantages and disadvantages. And different efficiency and duration...
E' a lot important, before the purchase, to estimate the own situation and that one of the own animals well: they are free to exit? Or they pass the greater part of the time in apartment? Some methods a lot indicates to you for the second ones is to es. of all the ineffective ones on first. There also to consider the local different variet, and the incidence of the climatic factors us: the effective products in an area can are not it in an other... Better to ask the opinion for the veterinary, the specialistic trader or a toelettatore professional in order to characterize the products that better are demonstrated reliable in the zone in which you live. If suspected that the councils you equip are not of all lose interests to you, tried to find a point of convergence between the several proposed options. Not limited you to the first reperibile product in the store under house: it could not be adapted your animal! You ask ALWAYS the opinion for the veterinary: for puppys or animals many young people, for gatte in pregnancy or breast-feeding, or however for previous animals with of sensibilizzazione or allergies.
In last, you keep in mind that you could have to alternate various methods with passing of the time: if used for several years of continuation, the better one produced loses than effectiveness, perch the new generations of pulci have developed one genetic resistance to it. Like if it were not enough, the seasons are not all equal ones, and a vintage year pu to be devout or less annoying to second than as gone the previous winter: some years sar cos possible to use devout pesticides blandi - or not to use them for null and others sar instead necessary to put in action all the possible countermeasures...
"natural" pesticides [ index ]
They are substances - antiparasitic devout on base empiricist who scientific the whose effectiveness limited to preventing rather than to cure.
They act therefore like repellenti, and to consider that as all there the substances chemistries - natural or they cannot be TOXIC.
Difficult to quantify their effective effectiveness in relation to the problem pulci: some persons believe to you blind, others have not obtained no result. Eccone some, from devout the common ones to devout... the..stravaganti ones:
- Aroma of cedar [ shampoo, oils, materassini etc. ]: repellente.
- Mentuccia [ fresh or seccate leaves ]: repellente. The highly TOXIC oil is for the animals that for the man [ very known since the antichit like abortigeno ]. There an excellent article to such purpose in the "AKC' s Gazette" July 1992. Also, in "Journal of the AVMA", v200 n6 - 15 March 1992.
- Garlic or I leaven of beer [ added in small doses to the food ]: repellente. Probably, through the odore produced in the sweat, breath and urine like result of their metabolization: usable it is in powder that in tablets, variable cost.
- Dietetic integrator [ various ]: repellente. Alternative trades them to the garlic or to I leaven of beer: one of this "Hop Off".
- Lemon or orange [ peels ]: bath antipulci (risciacquate well!) . . They are used bubbled to along in water, and then made to freddare. ONLY for small dogs. Highly TOXIC for roditori cats and small: Not to try not even!
- Linatone or other oil vegetable [ added to the food ]: sebaceo regolator? He helps to prevent the skin sand bank, preferred from the pulci. Recommendable to avoid baths excessive you attend and I use of shampoo aggressive.
- Finocchio [ leaves ]: repellente. For sfregare on the fur [ dog ] or also to plant in garden.
- Calendule [ to plant ]: repellente. For the garden, repelle also other types of bugs.
- The cats that sleep to the open can use like giaciglio one covered previously used in the handlings in order to cover the horses, not washed. Since the horses are not subject to the attack of the pulci, to use one covered * attualmente* used for the horses seems can maintain them far...
- Lavender [ 60ml. of oil mischiati with 2.8 liters of salgemma ]: repellente acclimatizes them. To put under furnitures and tappetini.
- Eucalyptus [ leaves ]: repellente acclimatizes them. Pu also to use one brush in wood of eucalyptus for the toeletta.
- NuPo offers a "trap for pulci" that species of paper uses the heat in order to attract the bugs to one moschicida. Domestic varying to the good one consists in leaving in garden added water small basins to detergent under one light source. Not adapted if there are cats in house! . . In case of strict infestazione it acclimatizes them, some pulci end l and drown...
Disinfestazione acclimatizes them [ index ]
To the inside of the house:
[ index ]
- Divani imbottiti furnitures [, seats, pillows, beds etc ]: taken care of washing weekly magazine of the superficial removable sfoderabili and/or [ you see also " . arredamento "]. Pu to be much profit the daily employment of a small portable vacuum cleaner (you close and jetties the bag after the use). This largely reduces the number of not incistite eggs and the larve: beyond to their physical removal, the effect extends also to the elimination of their residual alimentary sources and faecal ones of the pulci adult.
Moquette and carpets: daily employment of the vacuum cleaner and/or the carpet cleaner. Better to close and to throw the bag after the use. If this were too much expensive, possible in alternative to put a pesticide in powder in the bag: littles ball antitarme (of naphthalene, camphor etc) can be used in place of the powder, but you keep in mind who draft of somewhat TOXIC products. Decidedly adviced against - particularly when it contains diclorvos - to try "to recycle" pieces of the old one collarino antipulci...
In case the infestazione is much recurrent or ineliminabile, nearly sure one that is larve INCISTITE in the atmosphere: in this necessary case a DISINFESTAZIONE - it is professional that "make-from-you" - with products I affixed to you:
- Advisable the professional disinfestazione in case the superficial ones to deal is much extend [ to es. moquette ]. One of the devout companies notes [ in America ] "FleaBuster", that it guarantees the resolution of the participation for a year, offering in contrary case a second free participation. Many persons have reported that effectively the effect of a hard professional treatment very executed very devout to along of the terms covered from the guarantee. The insecticide in used kind the "Terminator".
- The disinfestazione "make-from-you" devout convenient economic and for the treatment of single superficial [ to es. carpets ]. They can be used produced gi manifactures in cylinders spray to you, but often - in way particular for treatments to repeat itself devout frequently favorable to fortify of a sprayer or nebulizzatore determine the proportions second the effective use. The best ones are those from shoulder, use you in order to scatter the pesticides in giardinaggio: the distribution cannula must be adjustable and sufficiently long from being able to easily catch up also zones hidden from the mobilio [ to es. under the closets ]. In the types to compressed air assured to you that it loads a square meter can last for the treatment at least. If you have a fan from ceiling, profit to set in action it lessened before opening the distributing one of the vaporizzatore, in order to facilitate fallen back of the product on all the surface [ attention for to the heat pumps! the air must compulsorily be COLD, since draft of inflammable products highly and with danger of outbreak ollowing to the thermal expansion! ]
Two important considerations a lot:
1. Not inalate or ingested the product!! Before executing whichever disinfestazione, PROTEGGETEVI with indumenti and/or masks adapted: in the storees of giardinaggio possible to acquire the apparel devout adapted.
2. Persons and animals must be FAR from atmospheres are DURING the treatment that AFTER, for a period of variable time from product to product [ of usual brought back on the confection ]. The plants need of being transferred all to the OUTSIDE.
E' senz' other advisable one to acquire an effective product is on the adults who on larve [ the v. beyond ]: a good source of information could be your veterinary, or yours specialized trader of confidence in articles for animals [ better not to use for this purpose produced generic reperibili in drogheria, although they are economically devout convenient ].
To the outside of the house:
[ index ]
In dealing the superficial external [ porch, garden, garage etc ] around to your room, you keep in mind that the pulci generally are not found in open places and/or suns to you: the larve in fact they do not survive to the high temperatures or in conditions of insufficient umidit. They can instead be found in all the surrounding ombreggiati places: under porticati, sheds, hatches of garage, leaks, fissures, cucce, to the shadow of trees and bushes and in all the places in which usually the infested animal spreads itself in order to rest when to the open. The precautions for the application of the pesticides to the outside are the same ones - online general of the employment to the inside: proteggetevi from the inhalation or ingestion, removed persons and animals, you cover with a plastic cloth the sensitive plants [ attention to the GARDEN!! Not carried out the treatment without to before have perfectly isolated and covered all the ortaggi assigns you to the consumazione! ] , Not carried out the treatment in ventose days, and preferibilmente not even to the mattino or the afternoon. Better to imbrunire, when the bees do not fly and the product has all the night in order to deposit itself and to dry.
[ index ]
- Piretrine : [ NdT: the piretrina a present chemical compound naturally in concentration of the 0.2-0.3% in the capolini gi blooms to you, but with flowers still not fertilized, of the plants of piretro - kind Chrysanthemum- and specifically of the plants of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium or "piretro of Dalmatia": spontaneous in the Adriatic it orients them - Istria and Montenegro- while in the rest of Italy insufficient cultivated. It is seeded in seedbed and it is transplanted to dwelling in autumn: the collection of the capolini is made to leave later on from the 3 year, and hard for devout of 20 years! The capolini they can be made seccare and then to mill - obtaining a said insecticide powder razzia - but devout frequently for domestic and/or agricultural use is used the industrially obtained liquid extract dealing the flowers with dissolvent. To notice that famous zampironi and the fumigatori cones in commerce are instead of all the ineffective ones, perch the piretrine are destroyed during the combustion without esplicare some attivit appreciable. Detached its tossicit in the comparisons of the Bugs famous from hardly a century, NdT ].
All the bys-product to you from the natural piretrina are consider to lowland tossicit for animals and persons you, relatively sure in the use, and with rather insufficient time of latenza (some are dissolved to the simple contact with the ultraviolet solar light ]. They can therefore be uses you also in atmospheres lives to you from puppys and micetti, once that the just period of time from the application is passed [ reads the instructions brought back on the confection! ]. The piretrine can be considered effective devout natural insecticides, although their action is however much inferior to prepares to you synthetic.
- Permetrine : they are one risen of synthetic piretrine. Regarding those natural ones, they have the not negligible characteristic - as far as the advantages and the disadvantages of a time of much advanced latenza: the residual effects permangono for entire days after the application.
- Organ-phosphates : as fungicideta and/or insecticides come in kind use you phosphates - foreign of phosphoric acid of branch legacies to organic compounds. They are indicates for the infestazione cases much being left over to you and when the previous treatments have not sortito the wished effect: their action much aggressive one and has along period of latenza. The instructions must exactly be used with MUCH caution [ continuations on the confection! ] perch - in used dependency with the quantit they have one strongly tossicit is on the man who on the animals. Possible allergic sensibilizzazioni.
- Inhibiting IGR or INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS [ = of the increase of Bugs ]
- Methoprene [ name trades them USA "Precor" ]: draft of a hormone that interrupts chemically the vital cycle of the pulci inhibiting the synthesis of the chitina [ NdT: polisaccaride nitrogenized, that it constitutes the esoscheletro (= external skeleton ) of the Arthropods: Crustaceans, Bugs, Spiders etc. An example given from the armor of the granchi, constituted from chitina arranged with knows them of soccer, NdT ]. It prevents to the larve to complete the maturation, but it does not have some effectiveness on the pulci adult. NOT in some toxic way for the man or the other animals of house: its esplica chemical action exclusively on the Invertebrates. Usable E' in formulation spray is alone (in the which case its effects only becomes tangible after many weeks, to the dead women natural of the adult bugs), than in combination with other insecticides type piretrine for an immediate action devout on the entire population of pulci:
Sectrol "of 3M the name trades them of a product formulated with piretrine micro-encapsulated to lowland tossicit on the Mammals: in coupling to methoprene a hard application for 5-6 months, rendering necessary two sun applications anniversaries.
"Flea Control" recommends the arranged use (piretrine micro-incapsulate+methoprene) in domestic situations where is women in pregnancy, small children who walk carponi, puppys of dogs or cats. The only side negative of the IGR that - being hormones the new generations can develop one risen of immunit genetic: one resistance to Methoprene be obtained in via colony of pulci experiments them in one. Adapted for for external use only [ the ultraviolet solar beams do not neutralize its effectiveness ]
- Fenoxycarb : [ often reperibile near the storees it specializes to you in articles from giardinaggio ]. Like all the IGR, do not disturb the pulci adult but it inhibits the completion of the cycle of maturation of the larve, esplicando its action in along period of time (several weeks). One solution opportunely diluted second the indications of the producer, pu to come sprayed on the superficial ones to deal, alone or in combination with other insecticides [ not IGR ].
The effects can last for 4-5 months, in dependency of the climatic conditions: one of the advantages of Fenoxycarb regarding Methoprene in fact of being able to be used ALSO to the OUTSIDE [ discreet resistance to the ultraviolet ones has one ]. All the formulations are reperibili under shape of powders, spray or liquids to dilute, although they can it are us of the difficolt of finding of the product to the pure state.
"Gardens Alive!" it sells for correspondence a solution IGR concentrated from the name trades them "Vigren", than diluted in 4.5-5litri of water enough for dealing one surface of beyond 100metri squares, to 9,25$ for 30gr: possibilit of reductions in price for devout three purchases of or devout confection [ the address ahead ].
"Torus" the name under which "the Kristull Product" [ 8708 Grelle Wools, Autin, TX 78744; 800-658-6699 ] it commercializes fenoxycarb to the pure state, in one resistant formulation to the effects of the ultraviolet beams and therefore usable to the outside. Because of the survey of the societ, the product could for be withdrawn from the market, and reperibile therefore only through the last games lying in the warehouses of the distributors.
"Archer" a similar, effective product against pulci and ants [ http://www.fleas.kristull.com ].
"Sectrol Pet and Household Flea Spray # 1495" of 3M a formulation of piretrine micro-encapsulated to the pure state, useful in combination with the IGR. Rather expensive.
"Dursban", commercialized from "HME Depot": possible to use it in EXTERIORS in order to free the garden from the pulci. It goes sprayed respecting the instructions on the confection, holding account that draft of one rather toxic substance: the active principle the chlorpyrifos.
"Duratrol": available it is in superficial sprays for inhabited that liquid for treatment directed on the cute of the domestic animal [ through bath, v. devout ahead ]. The odore seems bearable being and the rather good effectiveness. Necessary E' a half hour perch the spray is dried up, against usual the 4 and passes hours of other types of spray. It consists in short of chlorpyrifos micro-encapsulated, devout or less... "Dursban" in microscopical goccine.
- This a new biological approach to the fight against the pulci adapted for the treatment of the superficial EXTERNAL: the Nematodi is a class of small cylindrical worms - pertaining to the Nematelminti- subdivided in numerous families. The species employed is not parasitic and leads free life: the larvali shapes come distributed on the superficial external [ grass? earth ] for means of a innaffiatoio or similar, and they are developed in the humid land feeding itself of the larve of the Afantteri. They do not seem to have some tossicit for the human beings or the domestic animals, and the first studies show a satisfactory degree of effectiveness. "Bio Flea Halt" and "Interrupt" are some of the names trade them [ in USA... ], but probable that ve of are others.
- BORON And ITS DERIVES To YOU
- Boric acid : [ NdT: the boron a chemical element - a nonmetal that is found again in nature in very many composed (borati): present also in several organic compounds (the egg white, latte), and most diffuse in the plants, much to think pressoch indispensable to their life (the lemon instead strangely suffers it, if he absorbs 0,5 boron parts for 1.000.000 of water parts!). Its biological function in the organisms animals not still of all the clear one, cos like its eventual one tossicit. Its anhydride d with water the compound known like Boric acid , having antiseptic weak people propriet: he prevents the increase of the bacteria but he does not kill them, NdT ].
- Silice : [ NdT: tetravalente silicon oxide: to the state free or arranged with other devout constituent elements one of the abundant ones of the land crust. Pu to introduce itself in various shapes, is crystalline that amorphous. The powder of TOXIC silice for inhalation! F ra the tecnopatie covered from assurance against the professional diseases re-enter the silicsi, pulmonary disease that hits the workers exposed to the inhalation: miners, cavatori, laborers of the industries etc. He comes artificially obtained silice gel , obtained polymerized colloidal formulation from the silice hydrates, employed in dehydrating powerful chemistry like absorbent and, NdT ].
- Borce : tetraborato of sodio or sodio borato. E' a chemical compound - a salt formed from boric acid and sodio: white woman in powder introduces itself like a substance or crystals, with propriet alkaline and leggermente antiseptic [ small solutions diluted come sometimes used for the disinfection of small cutaneous abrasions and the eyes ]. Present E' in one large variet of products for the pulizia domestic. . La Borce TOXIC for contact oringestion. C they are cases documents to you of exposure - to low levels also protratti for to along that they turn out in congiuntiviti, loss of weight, vomito, light diarrhoea, epidermic bruciori, allergic convulsions, anemia, and reactions in the human beings. It does not use it you NEVER where there are CATS or ferrets, that they often have the LECCARSI habit, and could ingest of one quantit TOXIC [ October 92 of "Dog Fancy" ]. Symptoms of acute poisoning include diarrhoea, fast prostrazione and probable convulsions [ these symptoms were necessary when Borce it came scriteriatamente scattered for the control of the scarafaggi ].
These substances have been inserted in the number of open them 92 of the "Sunset Magazine" in the list of the chemical products little toxics, are in spray that in powder, you advises those who wishes to face the problem pulci without to resort to pesticides. Their esplica action in fact in way of the all different: Boric acid and Borce by means of ADHESION and ABRASION on the ceroso covering of the esoscheletro, silice gel like DEHYDRATING and DISSECCANTE. The "Sunset" however perceives approximately it upgrades them TOSSICITA' - bronchial and pulmonary damaging in inhalation case. YOU DO NOT ALLOW YOUR ANIMAL TO INGEST THIS ROBA!
Adapted for superficial INNER EXTERNAL or [ carpets and/or moquette ].
The procedure of application for the products in powder generally following:
- to pass to the vacuum cleaner or the carpet cleaner on the superficial ones to deal,
- to cospargere the powder for means of a sieve and distributed with one soft broom,
- to ripassare the vacuum cleaner.
Some persons prefer to leave to act the powder a little time before removing it, but since abrasive it, risks itself to ruin fibers of the delicate carpets or the moquette [ used detergents a lot blandi at the moment of the cleaning of the carpet! ]. NEVER not applied on humid carpets, perch this to produce permanent damages to the colors. The effects of a similar treatment can last also for a year. If been using produced made up of boron, and the persons or the animals of house manifest symptoms of sensibilizzazione, necessary to interrupt immediately!
Some use the common one know them from kitchen to the place from the borce. Living in areas to high umidit it does not acclimatize them, pu to be an alternative. Data for that it knows absorbs them water, cospargerlo on the moquette of a room not equipped of de-humidifier and situated in a coastal area, pu to mean one moquette moldy march and...
"Diatomaceous earth" an abrasive agent (on the type of the borce) that pu to be used for the grassy prati ones. Advisable E' the employment in powder shape or formulation aerogel.
Disinfestazione of your animal [ index ]
Often practiced before the application of products for topical use [ not always opportunely, v. beyond ], the bath drowns-pulci frequently devout practicable in the dogs that not in the cats or other domestic animals. E' however of the all inadatto one for animals that they do not accept to remain immersed in the water or that they are scared in coming sprays [ fundamental that they are accustoms to you since small, especially the cats to you ]. E' a good one you outlined hygienic, whose limited effectiveness for to the elimination of good part of pulci adult (not the all), without some effectiveness in the comparisons of the larve or eggs. Pu to come carried out in several ways, with the added one of shampoo medicati or less. Attention not to make to enter WATER in the ORECCHIE!
Advisable E' to wrap one salvietta - previously bathed and strizzata- around to the neck and the orecchie of the animal before making to dip it: this in order to avoid that the pulci they can jump on its head. For animals of large ransom [ dogs ] better to use the bathtub, while animals of small ransom [ dogs and cats ] will find themselves better in the sink than kitchen. E' useful to arrange tappetino a antislide [ for the cats better a large towel, where to make taken with nails ] on the bottom. In order to break off the superficial tension of the water and to make s that the pulci they sink, indispensable to add a neutral soap teaspoon or shampoo for children. With doccetta or a manual sprayer held to debita distance (25-30cm)"sprayed via" the greater number of pulci possible. In alternative, possible to use a shampoo medicato, whose use would go however advised or approved of from the veterinary: NEVER not used on the CATS produced specific for DOGS! [ the maximum time of immersion: 15min. YOU READ the instructions on the confection! ].
Some persons have obtained good turn out to you using "Skin-So-Soft" of the "Avon", famous for its repellente action in the comparisons of the mosquitos on the epidermide human. After the bath, possible to frizionare water and lozione in 1:1 proportion on the skin your animal [ dogs to shaved hair ], so that the odore permanga for some week. It never does not apply it on CATS or other animals to you [ to es. ferrets ] that they supply to own pulizia the LECCANDOSI!
There are however some CONTRAINDICATIONS to hold present:
- Shampoo medicati and the same neutral soap, in case enters in contact with a irritateed skin gi, usually "burns": also the animal devout calm and accustomed to the bath pu to innervosirsi, to scratch or to bite in the attempt sgusciare via. They have been brought back also cases of undesired urinazione. You do not subject to the bath an animal that present allergy or sensibilizzazione.
- The bath and/or the spraying can have effects traumatizzanti on animals in pregnancy or breast-feeding [ especially CATS ]: recommendable not to never force animals that find themselves in these conditions.
- You are many shrewed in washing puppys [ dogs and cats ] devout young people of 2-3 months: above all, NEVER used shampoo medicati understandings for I do not use it on adult animals: you could easy kill them! The young devout puppys of 8-10 weeks come easy POISON to YOU or INTOSSICATI from the products disinfectants uses you in the baths. In alternative, you can wash them with water and a recommended specific soap from the veterinary [ to es. light shampoo insecticide made up of piretrine or a alletrine, type "Mycodex" ], using comb antipulci [ v. under ] in order removing the pulci as they mature to the adult stage.
The importance of the comb antipulci
[ index ]
The so-called comb "antipulci" - with wide on one side and devout teeth tightened from the commercialized other ovunque: in the storees of animals, the drogherie, department store. Advisable E' to choose of one of good qualit, better if metallic: those in plastic are too much flexible and they do not allow a good ones I use. Opportune E' to accustom your animal to come combed since small: in such a way possible to characterize an eventual infestazione since the beginning, beyond that to avoid - species in animals to long hair undesirable entanglements.
In the case the comb came used in order to physically eliminate pulci the adult presents [ to es. in a cucciolo too much small for being able to be dealt with pesticides ], advisable to prepare one small basin of water with ammonia or soap in which to throw the pulci: decidedly sconsigliabile to crush them with the nail of the inch! The zones in kind mainly infested are the back, the zone of the inguine, the base of the tail and the head. In case of imposing infestazione however, absolutely necessary to get rid of the greater number of pulci possible before entrusting itself to the mechanical action of the single comb.
The powder "Powders Flea" to apply on the fur [ dogs ], comfortable to use but is found in various types and many of these are rather DANGEROUS. Fairies not to ingest the powder to your animal for no reason! It never does not use it you on the CATS or other animals that lecchino of frequent! Its use - with remarkable precautions exclusively limited the dogs, even applying to the powder for means of one brush.
[ index ]
From "Consumer Report" of August 91: collarini antipulci - it impregnates to you with insecticide substances to the slow release very rarely they are effective in infestazione case, and can often turn out harmful - allergies, dermati to you and losses of hair for your animal [ dogs and cats ]. Not used on the CATS produced for DOGS and viceversa! Some products made up of grass are not toxic, they have gradevole odore, and this all... The collarini electronic or to ultrasounds they do not seem to work better...
[ index ]
From "Orca Starbuck": many antipulci in shampoo, sprays or powder are not adapted for the use on animals in PREGNANCY, BREAST-FEEDING or puppys. On "Husbandry Feline" Piretrine they are mentioned like SINGLE sure insecticides to employ in pregnancy, although their employment is enough recent not to appear in many witnesses.
"Zodiac" spray (piretrine+methoprene) considered SURE for GATTE in pregnancy and breast-feeding and MICETTI at least 48 hours of life! The same one is said for the specific type for DOGS. "usable Zodiac" also for the treatment of the superficial ones where gatte and bitches in pregnancy or breast-feeding they always reside (that to the spray the time is given to dry before introducing the animal!). A council: a paper napkin impregnated of spray pu to be preferibile to the direct spray. Sfregatelo on all the hair [ except the zone of musetto and the capezzoli ] and the passages a comb antipulci, repeating the treatment the successive week. If the problem of the pulci still present to the birth of the puppys, anch' they - after a life week they can come deals to you with the same method weekly.
Pesticides of new generation
[ index ]
They are nearly all appeared to the beginning of years ' 90, and the general tendency of one constant increase on the market. They act for contact or sistemica way (in the blood flow of the infested animal).
- "produced ADVANTAGE" from Bayer ( imidacloprid, one cloronicotinil-nitroguanidina synthetized from compounds pertaining to the class nitrometilene ). E' a pesticide for pulci adult: it acts for disintegration of the nervous system of the Bugs: alloy with the neurali receivers interrupting of the nervous transmission. It is introduced in liquid formulation to apply on the cute of the animals, dogs and cats [ in these last ones in not accessible points to the leccamento, to es. GO BACK TO LIST the nape and between the bachelor ], and it acts for contact: NOT necessary that the pulce IT BITES the animal perch it acts. The soluble active principle in water, cos counter-productive to wash the animal AFTER the application, at least for some day (possible to wash it before). It does not come absorbed from the skin and in the blood or the inner organs. E' a repellente and an insecticide with, its action is completed nel.giro.di a pair of days and lasts for a month approximately. Municipal studies have demonstrated that selective its tossicit in the comparisons of the Bugs, cosicch other animals that do not possess sensitive receivers to the action of imidacloprid Of they are not affections. After the application, however opportune to hold of eye the just animal one for eventual signs of letarga or allergic reactions. Although not they have been experimentally secondary effects until 5 times the normal dosage, subjective reactions in particularly sensitive animals can however be necessary.
- "produced FRONTLINE" from Rhone Mrieux ( fipronil , a switch of the neurotransmitters derived of the new class of fenilpirazoline ). With the exception of NOT soluble Advantage in water (it comes for eliminated from the alcool). E' a pesticide for pulci adult, eggs and zecche: various from other molecules, it inhibits the receivers mediated from the acid range-amminobutrrico [ GABA ] of the Invertebrates. The zecche they die before being able itself to berth. E'possible to use it on svezzati puppys gi [ dogs and cats ]. It does not contain Piretrine or Permetrine , that a good thing for those animals that of are allergic. It eliminates 95% of the pulci adult within 2 hours from the application, and remaining within the 24 successive hours. Its action in kind permane for approximately 5 weeks, although in devout particularly unfavorable climates it can be necessary to often repeat the application. D place to cutaneous absorption and does not act for sistemica way, but for simple contact: it is introduced in diluted oleosa formulation in alcoholic solution: this last one evaporates in little tens of minuteren, leaving the fipronil "stuck" to the sebaceo layer of the cute and the hair (does not have to wash the animal with shampoo in the 2 PREVIOUS days and SUCCESSES the application, in order to maintain sufficient a untuoso film to YOU to its adhesion). Pu to be used on large devout small dogs of 8 weeks, and on gattini of 3 months. It has a level of tossicit of LD50, similar to that one of the aspirin.
Pu completely to be removed with shampoo "Sulf Oxydex Dog and Cat", to be produced from DVM Pharm. The peroxide contained in the shampoo eliminates the sebaceo layer completely and the Frontline with, during risciacquo.
- "produced PROGRAM" from Ciba-Geigy ( lufenuron ). Steve Dudley: Ciba-Geigy Animal Health in order has before realized a new approach to the problem pulci, through the development of a IGR, Insect Growth Regulator [ regolator of the increase of the Invertebrates ] and exactly benzoilfenil-urea lufenuron . . This acts like inhibitor of the synthesis of chitina [ v. over ], causing to the dead women of eggs (the larve that they are schiudendosi they are disabled to break off the shell) and of the larve in dumb. The IGR do not have however effect on the pulci adult, but the females that ingest the compound transfer it to the ovaie and eggs [ trans-ovarian effect ]. The chitina a polisaccaride, than with with several proteiche structures constitutes to incirca the 25/50% of the dry weight of the esoscheletro (= external skeleton ) of the Invertebrates, and necessary for its integrit and robustness.
. Il lufenuron , commercialized in USA with the name "Program" [ available only GO BACK TO LIST prescription veterinary ], widely available also in Europe. It is introduced in various formulations: tablets for dogs and liquid suspension for cats. Both come somministrate to the animal for oral way, in the food. In order to maintain the optimal levels of effectiveness for a period of approximately 30 days, 10mg of lufenuron for kg of corporeo weight they are the dose registered letter for the dogs, 30mg of lufenuron for kg of corporeo weight the dose registered letter for the cats [ you read ALWAYS the instructions on the confection! ]. The product comes absorbed for internal way and enters in the blood circle: it is accumulateed in the adiposo woven one of the animal, while the excess comes excretes. From the adiposo woven one it comes slowly rilasciato through the general circulation, and finally I excrete with I made them. E' be assessed that after 2 days from the somministrazione [ dogs ], nobody pulce adult had been able to develop from eggs rilasciate from the females that had ingested the substance. The control of 80% of the population of pulci needs of a period of time of approximately 4 weeks and 1/2 for being effective, as the larve and the pupe present in the atmosphere * prima* of the treatment still they complete their vital cycle. Studies lead on acute doses, sub chronic and chronic have not found secondary effects on the health of the animal and the level of tollerabilit of the product. Sinergizzato from an insecticide for pulci adult, no sign of tossicit was still obvious. These news has been drafts from the following article: To Novel Approach to Flea Control: Systemic Use of Lufenuron. Written from Rudolf Schenker and Philip To. Lowndes. It feeds Geigy Ltd., Basel, Switzerland
A last annotation: the formulation approved of for CATS [ approved of liquid shape ] for it I use on animals in pregnancy and breast-feeding. "Program" does not have warnings or contraindications in the present instructions on the confection approved of from the FDA [ Food and Drugs Administration ]: pu to be arranged with to other pesticides in order eliminating pulci adult [ the dogs and cats ] and also to treatments estimates against you adorned cardiaci [ dogs to you ]. The greater side NEGATIVE of this system that acts like remedy estimate rather than curative on the infestazione from pulci: it does not work well [ or not immediately ] against the pulci adult. Moreover it demands that the animal comes bitten from ALL the adult females presents in house for being able to act effectively on eggs, and this NOT recommendable in case the animal suffers from allergy! In last, for being able to be effective, it must be somministrato on ALL the present animals in house.
Tossicit of the various products
[ index ]
According to "Control of the pulci" of Steven To. Melman and Karen L. Campbell, ( John R. August, and. . 1991. "Consultations in feline internal medicines". WB Saunders & Co, Philadelphia. ISBN 0-7216-2226-7: Understood it 9 ), the pesticides that are reveal to you DANGEROUS or finanche DIED THEM when used on the CATS to the doses necessary in order to defeat the pulci are:
- carbaryl ("Sevin")
- chlorpyrifos ("Dursban")
- dichlorvos (DDVP, "Vapona")
- dioxathion ("Delnav", "Deltic")
- naled ("DiBrom")
- phosmet (= "Prolate", "Kemolate")
- propxur ("Sendran")
- Piretrine (EXCEPT micro-encapsulated piretrine , than they are not listate like foriere of known problems)
- ronnel ("Korlan")
- tetrachlorvinphos ("Rabon").
The following usable pesticides on the DOGS, are not approve of you for the use with the CATS [ although they are adapted for the superficial ones of house ]:
- amitraz ("Mitaban")
- bendiocarb ("Ficam")
- chlorphenvinphos ("Supona")
- chlorpyrifos ("Dursban")
- cythioate ("Proban")
- diazanon ("Spectracide")
- fenthion ("Prospot")
- Methoprene ("Precor").
Following instead is turns out DANGEROUS to you or DIED THEM when it uses you on the dogs:
- carbaryl ("Sevin")
- chlorpyrifos ("Dursban")
- dichlorvos (DDVP, "Vapona")
- fenthion ("Prospot")
- phosmet ("Prolate", "Kemolate")
- Piretrine (EXCEPT micro-encapsulated piretrine , than they are not listate like foriere of known problems)
- ronnel ("Korlan")
- tetrachlorvinphos ("Rabon").
Pulci on the coniglietti...
[ index ]
[ of Sandy Ackermann ]: there are still discordant opinions on which type of pesticide it can be considered sure for the use with the rabbits. The "House Rabbit Society" has always recommended to use a powder that was thought sure for cats and micetti: in this zone the veterinaries advise powders made up of Piretrine . . Recently emerged E' that it is better to use produced that they contain 5% of carbaryl . . The author of the text originates them however not found no reliable source in a position to asserting with certainty which - and perch- it is the indicated product devout. Us they have been too much little experimentations of laboratory. How to regulate itself? After searches carried out on "Medline", database a doctor given on-linens containing from 1966, emerged that they have been lead many concerning studies Piretrine and carbaryl , but the bottom issue remains like interpreting them. Be possible for the author to contact the producers of the pesticides for explanations with regard to. Cos, after to have put with all the data available and to have them subordinates al "National Animal Poison Control Center" (NAPCC), emerged that:
- Piretrine they can be considered SURE. But in sure cases, where the applied dose is TOO MUCH HIGH, tremors, died convulsions can be taken place and finanche. They act quickly, and they have little residual effects.
- I piretroidi they are derives to you synthetic of the natural piretrine and are estimates to you like "devout effective and little toxics for the Mammals regarding the natural piretrine":
But anch' they can cause to convulsions and dead women if a too much high dose comes employed. They remain effective for a time estimated from 1 to 3 weeks. The database to the NAPCC it does not contain cases documents you of problems in the rabbits which had to Piretrine or to the powder of carbaryl .
They are not as well as the pesticides the problem, how much the enzymes contained in the product. Following is common inhibiting enzymes, also known as sinergici, that they can be finds to you in the products against the pulci.
- piperonyl butoxide
- piperonyl cyclonene
- N-octylbicycloheptene dicarboxamide.
These sinergici enzymes can be add you to insecticides in powder or spray in order to prevent to the pulci to become resistant to the toxic effects of Piretrine or of carbaryl . . As this resistance is necessary, "the sinergici act for inhibition of the ossidative functions, upgrading also the tossicit for the Mammals". This means that beyond that preventing to the pulci to develop a resistance against insecticides, these diminish also the resistance of the animals against the toxic effects of the insecticide. This tossicit devout pronounced when the product comes applied on the skin the animal rather than ingested for leccamento of the hair.
A representative of the NAPCC has reported to the author to have worked for a company that she produced Piretrine sprays which were causing a bag of problems in the CATS. You always read in the label the composition of the product, holding very present concurred maximum following quantit:
The first recommendation of the "House Rabbit Society" that one to try to remove the pulci through absolutely a not toxic metallic COMB ANTIPULCI: if the modest infestazione, this could be a good solution [ and helps to create a tie with the coniglietto... ]. In conclusion, always recommendable to free the animals from the pulci: there are some enough sure products in powder in the use and that they help to eliminate the problem. The powders are many devout sure of the baths disinfectants [ we have received various signallings from veterinaries and owners who the baths disinfectants can kill the coniglietto! ] . . Only, lend attention and you carefully read the label before acquiring a whichever product.
References: "The Merck Veterinary Manual", 7 Edition p.1665,1669,1501. Snodgrass, H.L. "Toxicol Environ Health" 1992 Feb. 35 P91-105.
In conclusion... [ index ]
online general, you will often find yourselves in the necessit of having to use or devout solutions between those suggested over.
Some persons have asked the author which methods personally prefer to use. The be answer: a IGR spray, "Vigren" (methoprene) in sale from "Gardens Alive!". Every 4 months an application in all the house, beyond to the pulizia professional of the carpets. When its dogs participate to the extensions (exposing itself to possible contagi), before the exposure an application of "Ovitrol Plus" of VetKem (methoprene + micro-encapsulated piretrine). It once used powder of borce on the carpets, but relative worries to the inhalation and eventual damages to the same carpet have induced it not to use it ulteriorly. Never tried "Program", perch one of the dogs and the cat are allergic to the bite of the pulci. However, it has felt some to report a great good...
INFESTAZIONE FROM ZECCHE ... [ you go to summary ]
Characteristics and vital cycle
[ index ]
[ NdT: Between all the groups animals, the Acarus are without doubt devout varied from the devout point of view ecological and probably the rich one of species and individuals. "Mint" (lat. scient. IXODOIDEA ) the common name - of origin longobarda- with which they come identified several species of Acarus pertaining to two great families: ARGASIDI and IXODIDI, recognizable between they in all the stages of development from the ipostoma, ventral part of the boccale apparatus, in Ixodidi it finishes them and to shape of ' doccia'. Their puncture, with the exception of that one of the pulci, NOT annoying or painful: the host pu not to become neanche account of to have been attacked. This characteristic, with to the fact that can veicolare diseases much devout series, renders them many devout dangerous subdole and of the infestazione from pulci. Of other side, they are little devout easy ones to eliminate, since they remain on the cute of the animal and not incistiscono in turn for house. Advisable E', after their removal, to carry out of the diagnostic controls on the hosts attacks to you, is persons who domestic animals, NdT ]
There are beyond 850 different species of zecche: they have the aspect of round aracnidi relatively large, distinguibili between they for several characteristics. All however are ectoparassiti (= you adorned to you external ) ematfagi (= mangiatori of blood ) of much Vertebrati land - Mammalian and Birds especially included the Man: they insert the head UNDER the skin the animal, and of it they suck the blood. To difference of the pulci, you one insufficient specifict as far as the choice of the hosts.
- Soft ARGASIDI or "zecche":
Males and females are similar, the coriaceo tegumento but of epidermic consistency. They lack front chitinica armor ( scutum ). They can easy be identified from their boccale apparatus sub-terminal, localized in the inferior part of the body. They are ematfagi NOT permanent: they make many meal, short and fast, dopodich of norm they are detached from the host: they are mangiatrici voraci, and they can be filled up nel.giro.di in a pair of hours. Before the adult stage, they cross 3 ninfali metamorphoses.
- Hard IXODIDI or "zecche"
Famous greater sexual dismorfismo: the males are devout small, the tegumento form two chitiniche armors, one front ( scutum ) and one posterior ( alloscutum ). In the females the tegumento of alloscutum it remains motivatings force and it introduces numerous folds, in order to allow the abdomen to stretch itself when swollen of eggs. Before the adult stage they cross 1 single ninfale metamorphosis, with a solo longest meal of some days for every stage of development: they succeed in to extract until 8ml of blood, nearly 100% of their weight. Interesting to notice that during the assumption the blood comes concentrated, cosicch the watery part comes "given back" to the host through the perspiration to cuticolare. They are ectoparassiti seed-permanent: they remain attacks to you to along on the body of the host, cutting the cute with the boccale apparatus and berthing themselves to derma through the secretion of one the concrete species hardening car.
VITAL CYCLE: [ index ]
The zecche they can vary largely in the duration of the vital cycle and in the number of been involved hosts. Some have a fixed host, and complete all the their cycle on it. Others use two, sometimes three and some types use a great number of intermediate hosts.
All the Argasidi have metamorphoses distinguished in 4 are made, the Ixodidi in 2: the adult females of both the species can rilasciare until 20.000 eggs. The connection of the Argasidi usually happens on the host, dopodich the female must consume a delivery of blood for being able to allow eggs to develop itself. The Ixodidi makes meaning in how much the connection happens elsewhere. Once finished the meal, the female comes unhooked and places eggs to the ground, where usually they are developed. The mature eggs give origin to the larve, recognizable from the fact to only possess 3 seem of legs. These "embioni of mint" come produced in great number: they must consume a blood meal on a host for being able to change in one famous stage like "nymph". If a nymph pu to feed itself through a host, transforms itself soon in adult mint.
All the species demand elevated umidit and moderate temperatures. The young people zecche usually pass the "adolescence" to the ground, scrambling up on grass forelocks or leaves in attended of the passage of upgrade them host, that they pick up with sagacities of varied type: they are sensitive to chemical stimuli, the vibrations, the shadows, the changes in the level of CO2 or to the temperature... When they perceive the passage of upgrades them host, they are offered in the so-called "attitude of hunting": front ones are bristled on legs churning those. When the "unfruitful hunting", is dehydrated and had to ridiscendere in the land for being able itself to reidratare, therefore to go back on the plant finch the attempt does not succeed or sopraggiunga the dead women. To notice that much species resists without food an appreciable period of time. Some zecche can have a vital cycle of 20 years!
How and where they can be taken?
[ index ]
The zecche typically they do not infest the houses, although the females can distaccarsi and fall on the superficial ones at the moment to place eggs. Their preferred atmosphere is the grassy fields, the bushes, in kind all the boschivo ecosystem. They can be found in the sterpaglie to the periphery of the large ones citt like in opened campaign. After the autumn, zecche adult the svernano on red deers and other Mammals of the forests until spring.
Various from others zecche, Rhipicephalus sanguineus pu to the par of the pulci to cause true and own infestazioni in the canili or the domestic breedings.
Which dangers involve?
[ index ]
The zecche they are the been involved devout Arthropods - it is like ACTORS who like CARRIERS in the transmission of serious diseases are to the animals that to the man, second in this solo to the mosquitos [ tularemia, babesiosi, anaplasmosi, rickettsiosi etc ].
- Like ACTORS:
- Present toxins in salted and not still very recognized - neurotossine - they cause the singular "paralysis from zecche": frequent in America and Australia it hits persons, dogs and cattle: manifest with a serious paralysis that it begins from the posterior or inferior limbs and that one extends as a result of all the body: pu to have, not very rarely, mortal outcome them for respiratory or cardiac insufficiency. The means devout simple in order to eliminate the paralysis to remove the mint.
- They are moreover cause of anemia for the "every day withdrawal of money" of blood and of dermati caused the secretion to you to salivare.
- Especially much species of Ixodidi is carriers of protozoi, virus and bacteria (is notes the "recurrent fevers", affections gives Spirochete transmitted from the zecche, characterized succeeding itself of febrile accesses) that they cause serious diseases:
Amblyomma cayennense it transmits "tifo of Saint Paul", contagious infectious disease similar to the tifo esantematico and caused from Rickettsia brasiliensis.
Dermacentor andersoni main - the not only carrier of "tifo from mint" or "the maculata fever of caused Full of rocks Mountains" [ RMSF ] from Rickettsia rickettsii: devout frequent in the persons (600 cases to the year) that in the dogs, it seems not to hit the cats, bench the microorganism is present in their system. Fortunately easy curable E'.
Dermacentor reticulatus it transmits to the babesiosi (main symptoms: anemia and fever), due to protozoo the Babesia canis: the species that hits the dogs and the cats is not the same ones that causes the disease in the man.
Rhipicephalus sanguineus it determines the piroplasmosi of the dog, but pu altres to veicolare other diseases, to es. erlichia or "the fever from zecche", due to rickettsia the Ehrlichia canis: the cures can demand some months, and ill-fatedly not always they are sufficient. For of devout, they do not leave successive immunization and cos possible for the animal to be reinfettato subsequently. The erlichia be diagnosed in the man in 1986, and it does not come transmitted dog directly -- >uomo, but always for through of the zecche: the symptoms appear from 1 to 3 weeks after the effective contagio.
Borreliosi or "Lyme disease"
[ index ]
The borreliosi or "Lyme disease" a disease known fine from the beginning of the century, but from 1977 only attributed to spirochete the Borrelia burgdorferi, a bacterium of waved shape helicoidal, that it remembers to far... cavaturaccioli ones. E' a complex disease, that it hits is the man who the animals, selvati to us or domestic servants.
E' important to notice that to usually the infectious agent WANTS 24-72 US HOURS perch the mint inoculi, therefore its TIMELY REMOVAL reduces the possibilit largely to contract the infection. Ill-fatedly, the mint that bites usually larva or a nymph, cosicch of I shave visible.
Usually it comes transmitted to the man through the excrements infects of the pidocchi, but pu to come altres veicolata they give Ixodes dammini or "mint of the red deer", small large mint like one capocchia of pin, main responsible of the borreliosi between the Roditori: the hosts of election for this type of mint are the rats. . Ospiti occasionali sono invece cervi, uccelli migratori, conigli, procioni e piccoli mammiferi selvatici, oltre a cani, gatti, bestiame, cavalli e naturalmente esseri umani.
Recent studies have assessed the role of the migratory birds in the spread in new areas. . Secondo studi compiuti nel Connecticut, i GATTI sono ospiti usuali per questo tipo di zecca, ma sembrano refrattari -a differenza dei cani- allo sviluppo della malattia e/o a mostrarne i sintomi: nondimeno producono anticorpi al batterio, sebbene il loro livello sia pi basso di quello riscontrato nei cani o nell'uomo. In the exposed devout areas, 50% of the dogs pu to come hit, although hardly an obvious 10% monster symptoms.
. Recenti studi suggeriscono che la borreliosi non sia direttamente trasmissibile 'inter species' -dagli animali all'uomo e viceversa- ma venga diffusa unicamente per tramite delle zecche infette: una trasmissione per contatto con secrezioni corporee infette pu invece occorrere da dog-->dog.
Assessed E' the transmission for via placentare. Recently, others two types of zecche have been identify to you like possible carriers: Ixodes scapularis or "mint from black legs", and Ixodus pacificus or "mint of the West", this last one diffused in the coastal zones.
Symptoms [ index ]
The symptoms of this bedisease are hour separate to you in 3 stages. In the persons first the ambiguous one marks them of the infection exanthema migrans , a circular reddening in the zone of the bite, visible in 80% approximately of the adults, but only in 50% of the children. . Il batterio veicolato all'interno del sangue causa una sindrome la cui sintomatologia ricorda da vicino quella influenzale: febbri ricorrenti, cefalea, dolori muscolari e articolari, ingrossamento del fegato e della milza. . E' di ESTREMA IMPORTANZA effettuare una diagnosi tempestiva in questa fase, dato che le conseguenze pi gravi possono iniziare molto velocemente: il trattamento usuale comprende la somministrazione di antibiotici ad ampio spettro, tetracicline, penicilline ed eritromicine.
. La diagnosi viene resa maggiormente difficoltosa dal fatto che le analisi anticorpali non riconoscono fra la semplice esposizione e lo sviluppo della malattia. The antibodies can take also 6 months of time after the contagio. The 2 successive stage comprises devout an immense sistemico involvement, that it includes the nervous system and the heart. If still left without cures, the 3 stage is involved the muscular and skeletal system.
In USA. Sources for information add them:
- Been and local health departments [ departments be them for health ]
- your veterinary or doctor of confidence
- local Groups of support and information on the "Lyme Disease" can be found in many areas
- Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. P.O. Box 462 Tolland, Connecticut 06084 (203) 871-2900 (800) 886-LYME
- the "Lyme Disease Electronic Mail public Network" the "LymeNet once every Newsletter" 10-15 days.
The "Newsletter" contains of time in time the novit approximately the epidemic spread. Extracted from medical banns, regarding protocols of treatment, information the prevention comes equally included. In devout, the underwriters can formulate questions to the patients, the investigators and the doctors in net. In order to underwrite, sent an email to this address: listserv@Lehigh.EDU with subscribe LymeNet-L in the body of the message. The eventual problems would have to be only signal to you to Marc Gabriel ( email@example.com ), the holder of the list.
VACCINAZIONE [ index ]
It exists a vaccine for dogs: "Borrelia Burgdoferi Bacterin", produced from FortDodge Laboratories. It would have to immunize for all the duration of the entire season in which the zecche they are active. Sar available to short one vaccinazione for the persons [ the present rows of 1992, NdT ]. . Un'interessante discussione sugli aspetti veterinari della vaccinazione brevemente riepilogata in un articolo di facile lettura intitolato "Questions push for vaccinations against Borrelia burgdoreri infection" nel "Journal of the American Veterinary Association", 201(10), 11/15/92
Removal of the zecche
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. Lavate e DISINFETTATE le mani [meglio se calzate dei guanti in lattice tipo chirurgico, in vendita in drogheria e grandi magazzini], gli arnesi usati e la pelle del vostro animale sia PRIMA che DOPO l'intervento!
. Usate preferibilmente delle pinzette apposite: afferrate il corpo della zecca SENZA SCHIACCIARLO e tirate LENTAMENTE e SENZA FORZARE, finch l'apparato boccale non si stacchi. If all it comes via correctly, you would have to see one small cavit in the skin your animal, to disinfect endured. . Se invece vi appaiono delle "linee nere", significa che avete rimosso solo il corpo e lasciato la testa della zecca all'interno della pelle.
. Se il vostro dog o gatto restano tranquilli e ve lo consentono, potete cercare ancora di estrarla - assolutamente necessario, dato che pu condurre ad ascessi e infezioni gravi- ma sarebbe comunque meglio rivolgersi al veterinario per un'appropriata estrazione e disinfezione.
- Not used "homely" systems like matches, cigarettes, pins and benzine: this irriter only the mint, not the staccher!
- To cover the body of the mineral oil mint [ to es. paraffin or vaselina ] before proceeding to the removal, pu to be useful for soffocarla and facilitating of the separation. . L'olio non per sempre efficace, perch le richieste respiratorie dell'insetto sono cos limitate che potrebbero sopravvivere per delle ore ricoperte d'olio.
- The boccale conformation uncinata . e non spiralata, cosicch cercare di roteare la zecche per sfilarla non porta alcun vantaggio, ma aumenta solo -e di molto- il rischio di staccarne il solo corpo.
- The method senz' the other best one remains that one than to use directly of the special tweezers, pulling delicately and towards of you.
Infections or abscesses:
[ index ]
. Se avete lasciato la testa della zecca SOTTO la pelle del vostro animale, probabile che nel giro di una settimana possa svilupparsi un brutto ascesso.
. Dopo la completa rimozione della testa, per prima cosa disinfettate a lungo l'area con soluzioni alcoliche al 70% [l'alcol impiega 5min.
approximately in order sterilizing all the part ]. . L'alcol etilico meno tossico dell'alcol per frizioni, ma il Betadine o la tintura di iodio sono pi adatti [attenzione che i GATTI non si lecchino! The hydrogen peroxide pu to go better, in these cases, NdT ]. In lack of these, possible to use vodka or other strongly alcoholic liqueurs [ > 45% ]. The disinfectant could mainly burn or irritate the skin your animal, therefore you are ready to eventual "difficolt"... Applied - GO BACK TO LIST suggestion of vet- one antibiotic salve. If an infection had to be necessary, equally necessary to address to the veterinary for the opportune cures.
Like getting rid itself some:
[ index ]
To throw the zecche in the cabinet and to pull the chain not to kill to them!
E' necessary to dip the hardly extracted mint in alcohol, before getting rid itself some. . E' comunque saggio farla prima esaminare da un esperto [anche lo stesso veterinario pu aiutare] per poterla eventualmente identificare come un tipo di zecca vettrice di malattie serie.
To crush it between the index and the nail of the inch NOT for nothing recommendable! Beyond to the danger of diseases, in the case of the Ixodidi not far from easy what...
Countermeasures and precautions
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Not there are unfortunately many countermeasures from being able to take...
. Fra le raccomandazioni usualmente fatte per ridurre la presenza di zecche nel vostro giardino, una quella di mantenere l'erba sempre ben falciata.
. Controllate gli altri parassiti intorno alla vostra casa e allontanate piccoli e grandi Mammiferi selvatici dalla vostra propriet, dato che spesso essi possono fungere da trasportatori -specie invernali- per le zecche.
. Se vivete in un'area ad alta incidenza, e passate molto tempo fuori citt [escursioni, trekking, caccia, pesca...], al ritorno controllate sempre i vostri animali [soprattutto cani] e voi stessi per la possibile presenza di zecche: ricordate che la puntura spesso NON avvertibile!
Controlled also in the ripostigli and the baggage cars where it comes stivata the equipment. . Dato che le zecche amano i lunghi ciuffi d'erba al limitare dei boschi, una buona precauzione quella di infilare i pantaloni DENTRO le calze: in tal modo non potranno eventualmente penetrare all'interno e raggiungere la vostra pelle. Moreover, species if the stockings are of clear color, devout easy to characterize them once removed the footwear. Also to wear a hat or a useful cap: the zecche - although infrequently they can fall also from the leaves of the low trees
. Pi complesso proteggere il vostro animale: dopo una passeggiata in campagna sempre buona precauzione pettinare con cura la pelliccia del vostro animale [dog o gatto], utilizzando lo stesso pettine metallico usato contro le pulci [v.
over ]: in such a way possible to eliminate BEFORE eventual zecche that they have had the possibilit to attack itself. . Le zecche necessitano di un po' di tempo per raggiungere la pelle attraverso il pelo, ed pi facile rimuoverle prima o immediatamente dopo essersi attaccate che non mentre sono intente al...
meal. The cats that live free in boschive zones go control to you periodically.
[ index ]
In the northeast of the United States and other zones moderated, Rhipicephalus sanguineus or "mint of the perfectly adapted dog" to "domestic" atmospheres: particularly small farms, canili, places of breeding or training of the dogs. . Dato che il loro intero ciclo vitale si compie in questi luoghi, la strategia per combatterle diviene assai simile a quella impiegata per l'infestazione da pulci. To spray of the pesticides I affixed to you, even of IGR [ v. over . ], nel giardino e nelle vicinanze della casa -semprech fattibile- pu essere una buona idea, specie se i vostri animale sono liberi di accedervi
[ attention to the cats, the ferrets and all the animals that leccano! ].
. In casi eccezionali, o vivendo in campagna, potrebbe essere necessario spruzzare un antiparassitario anche anche all'interno delle abitazioni, dato che le femmine depongono un incredibile numero di uova.
. Nei negozi di giardinaggio, di articoli per animali e anche nelle drogherie possibile trovare diversi prodotti da utilizzare contro le zecche: they are ALL extremely TOXIC! Not possible to eliminate the zecche with "natural" products or to lowland tossicit. In doubt case, consulted the veterinary approximately the pericolosit for your animal. . Fortunatamente, una sola applicazione in genere sufficiente a liberarsi delle zecche e delle uova definitivamente, dato che a differenza delle pulci non hanno fasi di incistimento [leggete SEMPRE le istruzioni per quanto riguarda dosi, latenza e precauzioni di impiego!].
. Se avete solo cani, un nuovo prodotto chiamato "Preventic" [in USA, ndt] sembra essere molto efficace: si tratta di un collare aracnicida [zecche, ragni etc] il cui principio attivo, l' amitraz, it prevents the attachment of the mint. Not being a pesticide to wide phantom, it does not have some effectiveness against the pulci. The collar works better if dry: the acceptable rain, but a bath with the collar I wear issue absolutely outside! . Non necessaria prescrizione medica, bench sia sempre consigliabile consultare il veterinario prima di acquistare qualunque tipo di collare antiparassitario: probabile che la sostanza utilizzata possa a lungo andare causare fenomeni di sensibilizzazione. Not adapted for CATS! If your dog becomes lethargic or irritable, rimuovetelo immediately! Any moreover TOXIC COLLAR for INGESTION! The poisoning symptoms can include vomito, gums pales and instabilit in the movements. An antidote for the "Preventic" exists, called "Yobine": capacities IMMEDIATELY your animal from the veterinary!
With good succeeding - and lowland tossicit- pu to use a pesticide of new generation, "Frontline" [ v. over ]. Meant like antipulci, fipronil it has effectiveness also on neuro the emitters of the zecche. It exists in formulation for dogs and cats. Consulted the veterinary approximately the opportunit of its I use.
An other antipulci [ dogs ], "Tiguvon" of the Bayer ( Organ-phosphates ), it exists in formulation for sistemico use: somministrato monthly, it poisons the female while it consumes its meal of blood. Beyond to the cost, it remains the worry for possible sensibilizzazioni in allergic animals. Consulted the veterinary Before carrying out the purchase!