FCI-Standard N° 143 /14. 02. 1994 / GB


TRANSLATION : Dobermann Council of K.U.S.A. (Kennel Union of Southern Africa).

ORIGIN : Germany.


UTILIZATION : Companion, protection and working dog.      

CLASSIFICATION F.C.I. :   Group   2   Pinscher and Schnauzer
                                                                type-Molossian type and
                                                                Swiss Mountain and Cattle
                                               Section 1   Pinscher and Schnauzer
                                               With working trial.                                          
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY : The Dobermann is the only German breed which bears the name of its original breeder, Friedrich Louis Dobermann (02.01.1834 – 09.06.1894).
He was believed to be a tax collector, offal abbatoir manager (knacker) and a part time dog catcher, legally able to catch all stray dogs.  He bred with animals from this reservoir that were particularly sharp.  The so called “butcher’s dogs” which were already considered a relatively pure breed at that time, played a most important role in the origination of the Dobermann breed.  These dogs were an early type of Rottweiler, mixed with a type of shepherd which existed in “Thüringen” as a black dog with rust red markings.  Herr Dobermann bred with this mixture of dogs in the Eighteen Seventies.  Thus he obtained “his breed” : not only alert, but highly protective working and housedogs.  They were often used as guard and police dogs.  Their extensive use in police work led to the nickname “Gendarme dog”.  They were used in hunting to control large vermin.  In these circumstances it was a matter of course that the Dobermann was recognized officially as a Police Dog by the beginning of the century.
The Dobermann breed requires a medium sized, powerful, muscular dog.  Despite his substance he shall be elegant and noble, which will be evident in his body line.  He must be exceptionally suitable as a companion, protection and working dog and also as a family dog.

GENERAL APPEARANCE : The Dobermann is of medium size, strong and muscularly built.  Through the elegant lines of its body, its proud stature, and its expression of determination, it conforms to the ideal picture of dog.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS : The body of the Dobermann appears to be almost square, particularly in males.  The length of the body measured from the point of the shoulder to the point of the buttock shall not be more than 5% longer than the height from the withers to the ground in males, and 10% in females.

BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT : The disposition of the Dobermann is friendly and calm; very devoted to the family it loves children.  Medium temperament and medium sharpness (alertness) is desired.  A medium threshold of irritation is required with a good contact to the owner.  Easy to train, The Dobermann enjoys working, and shall have good working ability, courage and hardness.  The particular values of self confidence and intrepidness are requied, and also adaptability and attention to fit the social environment.


CRANIAL REGION : Strong and in proportion to the body.  Seen from the top the head is shaped in the form of a blunt wedge. Viewed form the front the crown line shall be almost level and not dropping off to the ears.  The muzzle line extends almost straight to the top line of the skull which falls, gently rounded, into the neck line.  The superciliary ridge is well developed without protruding.  The forehead furrow is still visible.  The occiput shall not be conspicuous.  Seen from the front and the top the sides of the head must not bulge.  The slight bulge between the rear of the upper jawbone and the cheek bone shall be in harmony with the total length of the head.  The head muscles shall be well developed.
Stop : Shall be slight but visibly developed.


Nose :  Nostrils well developed, more broad than round, with large openings without overall protrusion.  Black – on black dogs; on brown dogs, corresponding lighter shades.
Muzzle : The muzzle must be in the right proportion with the upper head and must be strongly developed.  The muzzle shall have depth.  The mouth opening shall be wide, reaching to the molars.  A good muzzle width must also be present on the upper and lower incisor area.
Flews : They shall be tight and lie close to the jaw which will ensure a tight closure of the mouth.  The pigment of the gum to be dark; on brown dogs a corresponding lighter shade.
Jaws/Teeth : Powerful broad upper and under jaw, scissor bite, 42 teeth correctly placed and normal size.
Eyes : Middle sized, oval and dark in colour.  Lighter shades are permitted for brown dogs.  Close lying eyelids.  Eyelids shall be covered with hair.  Baldness around the rim of the eye is highly undesirable.
Ears : The ear, which is set high, is carried erect and cropped to a length in proportion to the head.  In a country where cropping is not permitted the uncropped ear is equally recognized.  (Medium size preferred and with the front edge lying close to the cheeks).

NECK : The neck must have a good length and be in proportion to the body and the head.  It is dry and muscular.  Its outline rises gradually and is softly curved.  Its carriage is upright and shows much nobility.

Withers : Shall be pronounced in height and length, especially in males and thereby determine the slope of the topline rising from the croup to the withers.
Back : Short and tight, of good width and well muscled.
Loin : Of good width and well muscled.  The bitch can be slightly longer in loin because she requires space for suckling.
Croup : It shall fall slightly, hardly perceptible from sacrum to the root of the tail, and appears well rounded, being neither straight nor noticeably sloping, of good width and well muscled.
Chest : Length and depth of chest must be in the right proportion to the body length.  The depth with slightly arched ribs should be approximately 50% the height of the dog at the withers.  The chest has got a good width with especially well developed forechest.
Underline and Belly : From the bottom of the breastbone to the pelvis the underline is noticeably tucked up.
TAIL : It is high set and docked short whereby approximately two tail vertebrae remain visible.  In countries where docking is legally not permitted the tail may remain natural.


General : The front legs as seen from all sides are almost straight, vertical to the ground and strongly developed.
Shoulders : The shoulder-blade lies close against the chest, and both sides of the shoulder-blade edge are well muscled and reach over the top of the thoracic vertebra, slanting as much as possible and well set back.  The angle to the horizontal is approximately 50%.
Upper arm : Good length, well muscled, the angle to the shoulder-blade is approximately 105° to 110°.
Elbow : Close in, not turned out.
Lower arm : Strong and straight.  Well muscled.  Length in harmony with the whole body.
Carpus (Carpal joint) : Strong.
Metacarpus (Pastern) : Bones strong.  Straight seen from the front.  Seen from the side, only slightly sloping, maximum 10°.
Forefeet : The feet are short and tight.  The toes are arched towards the top (cat like).  Nails short and black.

General : Seen from the back the Dobermann looks, because of his well developed pelvic muscles in hips and croup, wide and rounded off.  The muscles running from the pelvic towards the upper and lower
thigh result in good width development, as well as in the upper thigh area, in the knee joint area and at the lower thigh.  The strong hind legs are straight and stand parallel.
Upper thigh : Good length and width, well muscled.  Good angulation to the hip joint.  Angulation to the horizontal approximately between 80° to 85°.
Knee : The knee joint is strong and is formed by the upper and lower thigh as well as the knee cap.  The knee angulation is approximately 130°.
Lower thigh : Medium length and in harmony with the total length of the hindquarter.
Hock joint : Medium strength and parallel.  The lower thigh bone is joined to the metatarsal at the hock joint (angle about 140°).
Metatarsus (Rear pastern) : It is short and stands vertical to the ground.
Hind feet : Like the front feet, the toes of the back feet are short, arched and closed.  Nails are short and black.

GAIT / MOVEMENT : The gait is of special importance to both the working ability as well as the exterior appearance.  The gait is elastic, elegant, agile, free and ground covering.  The front legs reach out as far as possible.  The hind quarter gives far reaching and necessary elastic drive.  The front leg of one side and back leg of the other side move forward at the same time.  There should be good stability of the back, the ligaments and the joints.

SKIN : The skin fits closely all over and is of good pigment.


HAIR : The hair is short, hard and thick.  It lies tight and smooth and is equally distributed over the whole surface.  Undercoat is not allowed.

COLOUR :  The colour is black or brown, with rust red clearly defined and clean markings.  Markings on the muzzle, as a spot on the cheeks and the top of the eyebrow, on the throat, two spots on the forechest, on the metacarpus, metatarsus and feet, on the inside of the back thigh, on the arms and below the tail.

Height at withers : Males :      68 – 72 cm.
                            Bitches :    63 – 68 cm.
Medium size desirable.
Weight : Males :      about  40 – 45 kg.
              Bitches :    about  32 – 35 kg.

FAULTS : Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.

  • General Appearance : Reversal of sexual impression; little substance; too light; too heavy; too leggy; weak bones.
  • Head : Too heavy, too narrow, too short, too long, too much or too little stop; Roman nose, bad slope of the top line of the skull; weak underjaw; round or slit eyes; light eye;  cheeks too heavy; loose flews; eyes too open or too deepset; ear set too high or too low; open mouth angle.
  • Neck : Slightly short; too short; loose skin around the throat; dewlap; too long (not in harmony); ewe neck.
  • Body : Black not tight; sloping croup; sway back; roach back; insufficient or too much spring of rib; insufficient depth or width of chest; back too long overall; too little forechest; tail set too high or too low; too little or too much tuck up.
  • Limbs : Too little or too much angulation front or hindquarters; loose elbow; deviations from the standard position and length of bones and joints; feet too close together or too wide apart; cow-hocks, spread hocks, close hocks; open or soft paws, crooked toes; pale nails.
  • Coat : Markings too light or not sharply defined; smudged markings; mask too dark; big black spot on the legs; chest markings hardly visible or too large; hair long, soft, curly or dull.  Thin coat; bald patches; large tufts of hair particularly on the body; visible undercoat.
  • Character : Inadequate self confidence; temperament too high; sharpness too high; too high or too low a threshold of irritation.
  • Size : Deviation of size up to two centimetres from the standard should result in a lowering of the quality grading.
  • Gait : Wobbly; restricted or stiff gait; pacing.


  • Character : Fearful, nervous and aggressive animals.
  • General : Pronounced reversal of sexual impressions.
  • Eyes : Yellow eyes (bird of prey eye); wall eye.
  • Dentition : Overshot; level bite; undershot; missing teeth.
  • Coat : White spots; pronounced long and wavy hair; pronounced thin coat or large bald patches.
  • Size : Dogs which deviate more than two centimetres over or under the standard.

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

N.B. : Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

Automatic translate from

The history

L.inventore of this wonderful dog from guard and defense, Frederic Louis Dobermann, carried out various functions, between which that one of the recovery of the taxes and of municipal employee authorized to the capture of the dogs randagi. Beginning from with heterogenous of dogs, this man and man hand "to construct" the ancestors of the Dobermann future. Later on, its job came continued from the future founders of the Dobermann Verein (German club of race), that they imposed their "creation" in years Thirty, at first in Europe and then also in the United States.

In a generalized manner

The Dobermann has made its income in our century in the garments of dog of the order services. If this image all.origine of its notoriet equally pu to say itself for its corporal plastic, than ago today of he a dog that joins elegance and power perfectly. In these last vent' years, the Germany, that it remains detentrice of the standard and country of origin of the race, seen to remove the scettro of hand from the Dutch and Italian breeders, that they have produced subject of optimal qualit have been privileges you subject elegant actions to the job but and fairs, as prescribes the standard.


The Dobermann, in particular the male, inscrivibile in a square. Fundamentalally sociable and pacific, it must however be an effective and brave guardiano, from the strong and sure character

The Dobermann dog of a medium, strong and muscoloso ransom. In spite of its "substance", one distinguishes for one silhouette rich of elegance and distinction.
It must have all the qualit of the dog from company, guard, defense and of family. .

Tagia: males 68-72 cm to the garrese; females 63-68 cm  

TAIL: attacked high, it comes cut short so as to to maintain two vertebre tail. In the countries in which the prohibited caudectomia, the tail pu to be left entire.

  Colors: black or brown, with focate spots of very pronounced red color rust and clearly delimited.

To avoid

. Lack of teeth

. Yellow eyes, of various colors between they

. Prognatismo

. Set of teeth articulated to tenaglia

. Pronounced reversal of the characters connected to the sex

. Pavidit nervousness, excessive aggressivit

. Ransom to the disopra or the disotto of cm 2 regarding i values prescribed from the standard

. Spots white women, long or waved hair


No breeding to signal
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General aspect

Dog of medium ransom, sturdy and muscoloso. Thanks to the elegant lines of its body, to its fierce portamento, its full character of temperament and to its look decided dallespressione, it corresponds to the ideal figure of the dog.


The log of the dobermann, above all in the male, practically iscrivibile in a square.

In the male the length of the log does not have to exceed devout of 5% laltezza to the garrese; in the such female length does not have to exceed devout of 10% laltezza to the garrese.


The dobermann he must be fundamentalally sociable and pacific; in family much affectionate and much legacy to the children.

One searches a medium temperament, unaggressivit medium and one threshold of medium reaction.

And a dog easy to train and enthusiastic of the job and at the same time must be decided and to demonstrate to a character much fort. Poich dobermann a dog much careful one to all us that verification around it and has a reaction adapted to the circumstances appraises the brave fact that is much sure one of s and.


Region of the skull

The strong skull and in harmony with linsieme of the dog.

Approval dallalto has the shape of a cone cuts.

The delloccipite, seen cross-sectional line of forehead, must appear nearly horizontal, cio does not have incurvar towards the ears. The advanced profile of continuous the nasal cane nearly online straight towards the skull in order then to come down towards the nape forming one light convessit.

The sopraccigliari arched ones very are developed, without being too much prominenti. I furrow median of the still visible skull. Lapofisi occipita them does not have too much to be obvious. Sights of forehead and dallalto, the lateral faces of the skull do not have to appear sporgenti (obvious). Reading arched lateral salienze determined from zigomatiche and the region masseterina must be in harmony with the length of the head. The muscles must very be develop to you.


The depression nose-facade must little be developed but perfectly perceivable.



Very developed and wide, with very open narici, the tartufo it does not have together to be sporgente in its. The pigmentazione of black color in the black subjects, those of devout color brown of tonalit clear and in tune with the color of the hair.


The snout must very proporzionato to the skull and very developed. It must be very wide also to level of I recorded to you inferior and advanced. The labiale commessura must arrive until allaltezza of molars.


The labbra I must hard, be very ironed, very adherent to the jaws and to guarantee one perfect closing of the mouth. The pigment must be dark, in devout browns the tonalit has one tonalit a po clear.


The jaws must be sturdy and wide; I recorded to you close to scissor. The set of teeth must be of 42 teeth correspondents to the dental formula with one normal development.


Medium largeness, ovals; liride of dark color; in devout browns admitted one tonalit a po clear. The eyelids must be very adherent to the shape of the ocular globe. The fortified palpebral rhyme of eyelash.


High Lorecchio attacked, and cut to one length proporzionata to that one of the erected head and carried.

In the countries in which the prohibited caudectomia and, lorecchio entire, to the ends of the judgment, it has the same value of that one cut (searches an ear of medium largeness whose front edge very is approached to the cheek).


Of length very proporzionata to the body and the head, the dry and very muscoloso neck; its advanced profile introduces one elegant convessit; the portamento of the erected neck and extension great distinction.



The garrese, above all in the males, much obvious one; its height and its length determine landamento of the advanced line of the back that leggermente ascending to leave from the rump.


And short solid it must have an adequate length and and wrapped from muscles very it develops to you.


Of good length and very covered of muscles. In the females they can be a po devout long in order to concur an adequate space with the mammelle.


To leave dallosso sacred in direction of the root of the tail, the slanted rump nearly imperceptibly. Of aspect very rounded off, the advanced profile of the rump does not have to turn out n too much horizontal n too much tilted. The rump must be of good covered width and of powerful musculature.


Laltezza and the profondit of the thorax must very proporzionate to the length of the log. The coasts are only leggermente ricurve, in way that thoracic laltezza corresponds nearly to met the dellaltezza to the garrese.

The chest of good particularly developed width and on (avampetto).

Inferior line

The ventre it turns out clearly ritratto to leave dallestremit posterior of the sterno until the river basin.


Attacked high and cut short in way to maintain two vertebre visible tail. In the Countries in which the law it prohibits the caudectomia, the integral tail puo to be conserved.


Front limbs

In theirs with the front limbs, from any side they are seen, they must appear sufficiently sturdy, straight and nearly perpendicular to the ground.


The bachelor must saldamente be adherent to the thorax and covered of muscles very it develops to you from both sides of the acromiale thorn; it sporge up regarding the spiny apophyses of vertebre the ridges. The bachelor must be oblique, very oriented allindietro and to form an angle of approximately 50 degrees with lorizzontale.


Good length and muscle. Varied bachelor-humeral Langolo between the 105 and 110 degrees.


Very adherent to the cost one and not ruotati the elbows must be in outside.


Strong, straight Lavambraccio and very covered of muscles; its length must be in harmony with linsieme of the body.


Larticolazione of the carpo solid.


It must have solid unossatura. Approvals of forehead, the metacarpi follow the vertical line dellavambraccio; profile approvals, the metacarpi must appear somewhat spread (to the maximum 10 degrees).

. Piede

The front feet are short with fingers very sluices and very curves towards lalto (cat foot). The nails are short and black.

Posterior limbs

Approval gives GO BACK TO LIST the dobermann, given to the powerful musculature of the river basin (also and rump), d limpressione of wide and rounded off being.

The muscles that go from the river basin to the thigh and the leg evidence an equally appreciable width, are in the region of the thigh that in that one of the grassella and the leg. The posterior limbs appear sturdy, perpendicular to the ground and parallels between they.


The thighs very long, wide and are very covered of muscles. Lanca must have one good inclination. The thigh forms an angle of approximately 80 degrees respect allorizzonte.


The femore, the tibia and the rotula form the sturdy articulation of the ginocchio, whose angle-shot of approximately 130 degrees.


And of medium length, in harmony with the length of the posterior one


Medium sturdy and parallels between they; the tibia and the metatarso form an angle of approximately 140 degrees.


Metatarso short and the perpendicular to the ground

. Piede

Like for the front foot, the fingers of the posterior foot are short, very sluices and very ricurve towards lalto. The nails are short and black.

sailing point

Landatura a lot important is for limpiego for which the destined dog, it is to the aim of the morphologic appraisal. The elastic, elegant, agile and melted step and covers much land; larto front ago a wide leap in ahead, while posterior imprime the necessary impulse through lampiezza and lelasticit of its movement.

The dog simultaneously advances larto front on one side and that posterior one dallaltro. In motion, the back, the legamenti and the articulations are very balances.


The skin very pigmented and joins everywhere in perfect way.



The hair must short, driven in, smooth, semivitreo, very adherent and uniform be distributed on all the surface of the body. Not admitted sottopelo.


The colors are black or red brown with very marked focature rust and clearly delimited.

The focature are found on the snout; like spots on cheeks, on the sopracciglia, the throat and the chest (two spots); on the metacarpi and metatarsi, on the feet, the inner faces of thighs, on the anale cercine and the ischiatica swell.



Males 68-72 cm.

Females 63-68 cm.

For both seies the ideal ransom that average.


Males approximately 40-45 kg.

Females approximately 32-35 kg.