ST. BERNARD (St.Bernhardshund, Bernhardiner)




FCI-Standard N° 61 / 21. 01. 2004 / GB


TRANSLATION : Mrs.C.Seidler and Mrs. Pepper.

ORIGIN : Switzerland.


UTILIZATION : Companion-, watch- and farmdog.

CLASSIFICATION  F.C.I.:   Group   2      Pinscher and Schnauzer                            type, Molossians, Swiss                                                                        Mountain-and Cattledogs                                  and other breeds.
                                               Section 2.2   Molossian type,                                        Mountain type.
                                               Without working trial.


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BRIEF HISTORICAL SURVEY :  At the height of the Great St. Bernard Pass, 2469 metres above sea level, a hospice was founded by monks in the 11th century  as  a place of refuge for  travellers  and  pilgrims.  There, large mountain dogs have been  kept  since the middle of the 17th century for guarding and protection.  The existence  of such  dogs has  been documented pictorially since 1695 and  in a  written document at the hospice in the year 1707.  The dogs were soon in use as companion dogs and specially as rescue dogs for travellers lost in snow and fog.   The chronicles about the numerous human lives saved by these dogs from the « white death », published in many languages, and the verbal reports of  the soldiers who crossed the pass with Bonaparte’s army in 1800, spread the fame of the St. Bernard, called Barry-dog at that time, throughout Europe during the 19th century.  The legendary dog « Barry » became the epitome of the rescue dog.  The direct ancestors of  the St. Bernard were the large farm dogs common in that region.  Within a few  generations and aiming to a defined ideal type, these dogs were developed to the present day type of breed.  Heinrich Schumacher from Holligen near  Bern was the first who began to issue genealogical documents for his dogs in 1867.
In February 1884 the "Schweizerisches Hundestammbuch"(SHSB), the Swiss Dog  Stud  Book,  was started.    The  very first  entry was  the St.Bernard  "Leon",  and  the  following 28 registrations also concerned St.Bernards.  On the 15th March 1884, the Swiss St.Bernards-Club was founded in Basle.  On the occasion of an international Canine Congress on June 2nd 1887, the St. Bernard dog was officially recognized as a Swiss breed and  the breed  standard  was  declared  as  binding.    Since  then , the St.Bernard has been regarded as the Swiss national dog. 

There are two varieties of the St.Bernard :

  • Short-haired variety (double coat, “Stockhaar”):
  • Long-haired variety.

Both varieties  are  of  considerable size and of impressive general apperance.  They have a balanced, powerful, sturdy, muscular body with impressive head and an alert facial expression.


  • Ideal relation of height at withers to length of body (measured from the point of the shoulder to the point of buttocks) = 9 : 10.
  • Ideal relation of height at withers to depth of chest see sketch below.
  • The total length of the head is slightly more than one third of the height at withers.
  • The relation of depth of muzzle (measured at its root) to length of muzzle is almost 2:1.
  • Length of muzzle slightly longer than one third of the total length of the head.















Friendly  by  nature.  Temperament calm to lively; watchful.

General : Powerful, imposing and very expressive.

Skull : Strong, broad, seen  in profile and from the front slightly  rounded.  When the dog is alert, the set-on of the ears and the top of the skull form a straight line which slopes at the sides in a gentle curve to the strongly developed high cheek bones.  Forehead falling away steeply towards the muzzle.  Occipital bone only moderately developed, superciliary ridges strongly developed.  The frontal furrow, which starts at the base of the forehead, is distinctly developed and runs up right in the middle of the skull.
The skin of the forehead forms slight wrinkles above the eyes that convergetowards the frontal furrow.  When the dog is at attention, they are moderately visible; otherwise they are rather inconspicuous.
Stop : Dinstinctly pronounced.

Nose : Black, broad and square.  Nostrils well opened.
Muzzle : Of even width.  Nasal bridge straight, with slight groove.
Lips :  Edge of  lips black pigmented.  Flews  of upper jaw strongly  developed, firm and not too pendulous, forming a wide curve towards the  nose.  Corners of  mouth remain visible.
Jaws/Teeth : Upper and lower jaw strong, broad, equal in length.  Well developed, regular and complete scissor or pincer bite. Close fitting undershot mouth without any space between the lower and the upper incisors acceptable.  Absence of PM 1 (premolar 1)  and M3tolerated.
Eyes : Of medium size.   Colour dark brown to nut-brown.  Moderately deep set with a friendly expression. Natural tightness of lids desired.  A small angular fold on the lower lids with the haws only slightly visible as well as a small fold on the upper lids are permitted. Eyerims completely pigmented.
Ears : Of medium size, set on high and wide.  Strongly developed burrs.  Flaps pliable, triangular with rounded tips.  The rear edges  slightly standing off, the front edges lying closely to the cheeks.

NECK : Strong and of sufficient length. Dewlap and loose skin on the  neck moderately developed.

General : General appearance imposing, balanced, impressive and well muscled.
Withers : Well  defined.
Back : Broad, strong, firm.  Topline straight and horizontal upto the loins.
Croup : Long, hardly sloping, merging gently with the root of the tail.
Chest  :  Brisket moderately  deep  with  well sprung  ribs,  but  not barrel-shaped.  Not projecting below elbow level.
Belly and underline : Slight tuck up towards rear.

TAIL :  Set-on  broad and  strong.   Tail  long and  heavy.  The last  vertebra reaching  at least  to the hock joint.   When in repose, the  tail
hangs straight  down or slightly upturned  in the lower  third. When animated, it is carried higher.


General : Forelegs straight and parallel seen  from the front.  Standing moderately broad.
Shoulders :  Shoulder blades oblique,  muscular and well attached to  the chest wall.
Upper  arm  :  Longer than the shoulder blade.  Angle between shoulder blade and upper arm not too blunt.
Elbow : Close fitting.
Forearm : Straight, strong in bone, with lean musculature.
Pasterns :  Seen from  the front vertical in prolongation of the forearms; slightly oblique seen from the side.
Forefeet : Broad,  with strong, tight, well arched toes.

General : Muscular with moderate angulation.   Seen from the back, hind legs are parallel, not standing closely together.
Upper thigh : Strong, muscular, broad.
Stifle : Well angulated, turning neither in nor out.
Lower thigh : Slanting and rather long.
Hock joints : Slightly angulated, firm.
Metatarsus : Straight and parallel when seen from GO BACK TO LIST.
Hind feet :  Broad, with strong, tight, well arched toes.  Dewclaws tolerated if they do not  hinder the movement.

GAIT / MOVEMENT : Harmonious far reaching movement with good drive from the hindquarters,  the back remaining stable and firm.  Front and hind feet move forward in a straight line.



  • Short-haired variety (Stockhaar, double coat) : Topcoat dense, smooth; close-lying  and  coarse.  Plenty of undercoat. Thighs with slight breeches.  Tail covered with dense hair.
  • Long-haired variety : Topcoat plain, of medium length with plenty of undercoat.   Short hair on face and ear; hair  over the haunches and  the croup usually somewhat wavy.   Front legs feathered.  Thighs with good breeches.  Bushy tail.

COLOUR : Primary colour white with smaller or larger reddish-brown patches (splash-coated dogs) up to an unbroken reddish-brown mantle covering back and  flanks  (mantle dogs).  A broken reddish-brown mantle is of equal value.  A brindle reddish-brown colour permissible. Brownish-yellow tolerated.   Dark shadings on head desirable.  Slight touch of black on body tolerated.
Required white markings : Chest, feet,  tip of tail, muzzle  band, blaze and patch on neck.
Desirable markings : White collar.  Symmetrical dark mask.

Height at withers : For dogs          minimum 70 cm,
                            for bitches        minimum 65 cm.
                            For dogs           maximum 90 cm,
                            for bitches        maximum 80 cm.
Dogs which exceed the maximum height will not be penalised, provided their general appearance is balanced and their movement is correct.

FAULTS  :  Any  departure  from  the  foregoing  points  should  be considered a fault and the seriousness, with which the fault should be regarded, should be in exact proportion to its degree.

  • Lack of sexual characteristics.
  • Unbalanced general appearance.
  • Too short legs in relation to size (short-legged).
  • Heavy folds on head and neck.
  • Muzzle too short or too long.
  • Flews of the lower jaw turning outwards.
  • Missing teeth other than PM 1 (premolar 1) and M3.  Small teeth (especially incisors).
  • Slightly undershot mouth.
  • Light eyes.
  • Eyelids too loose.
  • Sway back or roach back.
  • Croup higher than withers or falling away.
  • Tail carried curled on the back.
  • Absence of required markings.
  • Crooked or severely turned out front legs.
  • Poorly angulated, open-hocked or cow-hocked hindquarters.
  • Faulty movement.
  • Curly coat.
  • Incomplete or totally absent pigmentation on nose leather, around the nose, on the lips or the eyelids.
  • Faulty primary colour e.g. reddish-brown dots or ticks in the white.



  • Weak temperament, aggressiveness.
  • Overshot mouth, distinctly undershot mouth.
  • Wall eye.
  • Ectropion, entropion.
  • Solid white or solid reddish-brown coat (absence of the primary colour).
  • Coat of  any other colour.
  • Height at withers below minimum size.

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

N.B. :  Male  animals should  have two  apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

This amended breed standard will become effective from April 2004.

Automatic translate from


  The Saint Bernardo a large, strong dog much, muscoloso one, with one powerful head.   Finch the weight of the dog remains proporzionato to its height, devout estimated high and devout. There are two types of cape: rough and smooth. In both   the cases the hair much driven in one and introduces in the color white man with of the spots brown rossiccio, red, black mahogany and, in various combinations. The snout and the orecchie usually are vanished with black and the intelligent and sweet lespressione. In the exemplary with the rough cape, the hair leggermente devout along and appears piumato in thighs and the legs. The wide leg and the fingers have a good arcatura that allows to the Saint Bernardo one sure walk also on the snow and the ice. They have a fiuto strongly developed and moreover it seems have a sixth sense to nellavvertire imminent dangers of storms or avalanches.      


They are extremely sweet, friendly and tolerant with the children. The Saint pacific and slow Bernardo in the movements, obedient patient and. And a dog much loyal one. Seen the remarkable mola of this race, opportune to socialize to lesemplare since of Saint Bernardo cucciolo, holding it to contact with people. And much intelligent and easy one to train, however is advised to begin laddestramento in the first months of life of the dog, when still manageable measure has one. In fact a indisciplinato dog   of this format, difficult to govern also for a person much fort and if it comes trained in public zones necessary luso of a leash so as to to have full load control on the dog. The saint Bernardo a good dog from guard thanks also for its size that acts as from deterrent.

Height and weight:

Height: females cm 61;   males   cm 70.

Weight:      females kg   50;   males kg 91.

Problems of health:

These dogs enjoy   good health but some is tilts to the syndrome of wobbler. They can have of the problems to the skin, the heart, can be subject to the falling dysplasia dellanca and the inferior eyelid. In these can pu to manifest the phenomenon of the turned upside down stomach and therefore opportune to subdivide their meal in two or three small meal.

Living conditions:

The Saint Bernardo star well also in apartment, if adequately trained. Practically they are inatti to you allinterno and sufficient to have a small garden in order to make it to move a poin libert. They can living calmly allaperto even if they would prefer living with their family. They have one low tolerance to the warmth, therefore to the too much warm rooms and the long travels or pauses in automobile.


One long walk every sufficient day sar in order to maintain the just saint Bernardo in good conditions. As far as the puppys, their boneses would not have to be strained too much at least finch not   they are formed completely. Therefore of the short walks and i   you play not too much extends are from advising finch the dog to you does not have approximately two years of ET, if affection from dysplasia is not wanted to be incurred in the possibilit of having a Saint adult Bernardo.


Approximately 8 10 years.


Both types of capes are easy to hold. One vigorous brushed every day sufficient in order to maintain in order the just saint Bernardo. A beautiful if only necessary advised bath and with a delicate soap seen that the shampoo pu to eliminate the oleose substances del hair del dog. Particular attention must be made during the bath not to make to enter in contact the eyes with annoying substances which shampoo or the soap.



The saint Bernardo one race much ancient one. And state founded in 980 from St Bernard de Menthon like shelter for the travellers through the dangerous alpine step between Switzerland and lItalia. It comes down from the mastiff tibetano and therefore it must around have origin with mastiff the capacities from Roman allanno 1000. Then the monaci probably they intercrossed lantico mastiff with the great Danish and the Great Pyrenei. Luso and the popolarit of the Saint Bernardo as dog from the 17 alpine aid century is begun around to the met of. Devout of 2000 persons they have been saved from this exceptional dog. After to have found dispersed or the wounded the leccano and they are close for dargli heat finch does not arrive the men of the alpine aid informs to you from an other Saint Bernardo. These dogs have fiuto a a lot developed that person also under various meters of snow allows to find it one.   The avalanches are famous moreover for theirs cos said sixth sense in previewing perch perhaps succeed to feel of the frequencies many lowlands, than lorecchio human not in a position to perceiving. As gi said two variet exists of Saint Bernardo: to short hair and long hair. The variet to hair short devout used for the job in mountain perch in a position to tolerating rigid the devout temperatures, while in that one to long hair they can be formed easy of the ghiaccioli.



Origin: Switzerland
Date of publication of the standard in vigor: 24 March 1993

Use: Dog of company, from guard and pastorizia
Classification the ICF: Group 2 (Swiss dogs of type Pincher and Schnauzer, molossoidi and dogs from bovaro) Section 2.2, without test to the job (molossoide of the type dog from mountain)
General aspect
Two exist varying of the Saint Bernardo, variet to short hair and the variet to long hair.
Both the variet are of large ransom. The powerful, muscoloso and harmonious body, the imposing head, careful lespressione. The amiable character, and the calm temperament but supervising.
Important proportions. Height: length of the log = the 5:6 (length of the log measured from the tip of the shoulder to the tip of the buttock).
Ideal proportions: laltezza of the front limbs must be > of 50% dellaltezza to the garrese
It must be poderosa and daspetto imposing.
Regions of the cranio:visto frontally and profile, the advanced part of the wide, strong skull and leggermente bombata; it is connected from every part with a sweet rounding in the region to giugulare, high and strongly developed. On, the facade falls in direct way sullinizio of the tartufo. Moderately marked the swell occipita them, instead the sopraccigliari arched ones is a lot developed. After linizio of the tartufo, I furrow facade prolongeds until the center of the sommit of the skull in order getting lost progressively in the region occipita them. The skin the forehead forms, over the eyes, of the convergent wrinkles in direction of furrows median. When the dog in state of waking, is devout marked, and lattaccatura of the orecchie forms one straight line with the advanced part of the skull. The stop very marked. The short snout and of one homogenous width, the straight nasal cane with one light rabbet. The length of the inferior snout to its height (measured to the root).
The tartufo of black, wide color and with angles very it marks to you. The narici very are opened. The edge of the labbra black. Labbra advanced, the a lot developed and hanging, forms towards tartufo a wide arc. The labiale commessura remains visible.
The set of teeth regular, it completes and powerful, with a closing it is to scissor is to tenaglia. Unarticolazione to admitted inverse scissor. Lassenza of the first tolerated premolar.
The eyes must be of medium dimensions, color tawny dark until the tawny walnut and moderately infossati in their orbits, amiable lespressione. The pupille they are married R-al.meglio with the ocular globe and the edges of the eyelids are completely pigment to you. And wished the natural closing of the eyelids; one small angular fold that ago to catch a glimpse po of congiuntiva to the inferior eyelid and one small fold to the advanced eyelid is admitted. The orecchie must be of medium ransom and high and wide junction. The conca of the pavilion very developed. The fine pavilion and of triangular shape with rounding allestremit; the posterior edge leggermente detached, and that front one very glue to cheeks.
The moderately developed powerful neck with giogaia.
Powerful and harmonious general Daspetto.
Advanced line: very marked garrese with profile sup. straight from the garrese to the lombi. The leggermente slanted rump and is melted sweetly with lattaccatura of the tail.
The wide, powerful and hard back.
The thoracic case moderately descendant with the enclosed cost one very; it does not have to come down low devout of gomiti.Ventre and the profile under the thorax: moderately going back towards GO BACK TO LIST. The tail has a wide and strong junction and must be in the heavy and long complex. Tail Lultima vertebra must catch up laltezza of the garrese at least. C$r-retired the tail incurvata capacity falling or leggermente towards lalto nellultimo third party; when the dog allerta capacity devout up.
Front: rather wide on, seen front, straight limbs and parallels. The bachelor oblique, muscolose and are very attacked against the thoracic wall. The arms are of the same devout length or only po a court of the bachelor, langolo between the bachelor and the arms does not have too much to be opened. The elbow very close to the body. Straight Lavambraccio, equipped of strong unossatura and one dry musculature. The metacarpo, seen from, perpendicular, approval of profile, leggermente flesso. The front legs are wide with tightened, strong fingers and many arch.
Posterior: moderately angled and very muscoloso posterior train, seen from of GO BACK TO LIST, posterior parallels but not too much sluices. The thighs are powerful, very muscolose and wide. The articulations of the ginocchio are very angled and they do not introduce shunting lines n allesterno and n allinterno. The legs are oblique and enough long. The garretti they are strong and moderately falling. Seen metatarsi they give GO BACK TO LIST are straight and parallels. The posterior legs introduce tightened, strong fingers and many arch. The spurs are tolerate to you until they do not hinder the movement.
Sailing point: harmonious step with falcate widths and optimal push of the posterior one. The front feet and the posterior feet move online straight.
Variet to short hair: hair of dense, smooth, very patinated cover and rude, sottopelo abundant. Light cover on thighs, dense hair on the tail. Variet to long hair: straight hair of cover, medium length, sottopelo abundant, in the region of also and on the rump, a po generally waved hair. Cover very supplied on thighs, frange on the front limbs, short Hair on the snout and the orecchie. Tail folta.
Color of the hair: background white man with devout spots of red-tawny color or less great (dogs to spots) until forming an uninterrupted red-tawny cape on the back and the flanks (dogs to complete saddleback); the cape "cracked" (white man holes) you are equivalent. The red-tawny one brizzolato admitted. The tolerated yellow-tawny color. The tawny-dark on head and searched coloration; traces of black on the log are tolerated.
Zones white women: chest, nape, legs, estremit of the tail, star (on the facade that prolongeds from the head) and strip around to the snout.
Searched: collar white man and the symmetrical dark mask on the snout.
Ransom - Height:
Inferior limit: males 70 cm
Females 65 cm
Advanced limit: males 90 cm
Females 80 cm
The dogs that exceed the ransom advanced limit will not be penalize to you, if their general aspect remains harmonious and their correct sailing point.
All us that various regarding the aforesaid points considered like a penalized defect sar in function of its gravit.
Little pronounced sexual characteristics, not harmonious general aspect, too much marked wrinkles on the head and neck of the too much short snout or too much along. Inferior Labbro falling towards lesterno. Advanced or inferior Prognatismo. Absence of teeth but first premolars. Orecchie with too much low junction. Clear eyes, entropion, ectropion. Falling eyelids. Insellato back or sopraelevata or guaranteed back to carpa.Groppa. Tail capacity rolled up on the back. Front limbs storti or strongly turn to you towards lesterno (mancini). Too much straight posterior limbs, to botte or vaccine with sailing point scorretta. Hair to boccoli, crespo. Incomplete Pigmentazione or absent on the tartufo, around to the same one, on the labbra and the eyelids. Badly pigmented zones, as an example sprays of red-tawny on the white man. Weakness of character, aggressivit.
Eliminatori defects:
Cape completely completely red-tawny white man or. Cape of an other color. Blue eye, eye gazzuolo. The males must have two testicoli daspetto normal completions come down in the scroto
NB: they have been intentionally omitted the brought back historical signals in the version originates them



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