Testudo kleinmanni

testudo kleinmanni tartarughe tartaruga rettili

Breeding and reproduction in cattivit of the Testudo Kleinmanni,

Lortet, 1883: experiences of Marlies and Detlef Fritzsche

Altogether 34 eggs have been placed between 1999 and 2001 with the birth of 24 tartarughine. The losses are the result of errors that we will describe.
In a generalized manner the turtle devout Egyptian the small species between all the Mediterranean turtles. The relative habitat limits to one small coastal line from the Libia of the northeast to Egypt and in Israel for one wrap of 90 km in inside (BUSKIRK 1990). Decisive the limitativo factor devout of the areale the limited rain far away from the shoreline with consequent scarsezza of food.
The turtle Egyptian the only Mediterranean turtle that carries out the estivazione, than probably hard several months. However the limited distribution and this particularly threatened species from the excessive pasture of the crudes oil (reducing disponibilit of the food and the places in order to hide), but also from the new threats, which the expansion of the areas cultivated and capture (GAD 2000).
Contrarily to the other turtles, the breeders cannot generally satisfy the requirements of this species. We have bought our first testudo Kleinmanni in 1993. Today we have four males and six females. With the variations he ages them the adult females weigh approximately 350 g. One female with one length of carapace of a 14 centimeters and weight of 450 a giant of its species. The males are clearly devout small and weigh between 160 g and 215 g.
For several years the animals have been maintained in open terrari advancedly in our apartment. All the efforts in order to stimulate the animals with a variation age them through heating lamps in order to stimulate particularly the estivazione remained unfruitful. Altogether the animals were insufficient active sexually (the males limited themselves to a short and occasional erection of the penis and to "the grinding" noises once it bathes to you). Remarkable however they were the chronic respiratory diseases, to times you develop yourselves in stress conditions. The symptoms somigliavano to the pneumonia. From ours constant lowland puts into effect them experience imputable to one umidit.
The baths and the every day umidificazione have not had some happening in the reduction of the problem in order to increase with succeeding the umidit.
Later on we have constructed a special terrario for the group and temporarily which had to arrange the animals in the greenhouse, because of the job of reconstruction of our apartment. For several years we have maintained kinds different of turtles, Kinixys and G.carbonaria, in this greenhouse.
After this transfer we have noticed increasing remarkable the attivit - especially the first attempt of connection - for how much we had not never seen a real connection up to now.
From the decision to leave the animals us in the greenhouse. The greenhouse constructed directly to ridosso of the building to south-east. Independently from the season the 20 temperatures do not come down under i c. The limited maximum temperature to 45c of summer with ventilation and ombreggiamento controls to you. These values of temperature are taken to a height of cm 1,40 where the kleinmanni they are lodged.
The high one umidit obtained with water containers and many plants innaffiate with regolarit. The turtles Egyptians are maintained in open terrari of glass. The preparation consists of a flat plate with water, a plant with fogliame in a vase or planted directly in the substrate and moreover it includes of the tubes of terracotta in order sheltering itself. Once not active the animals withdraw themselves in these tubes craft them, also during the estivazione.
Over the tubes a lot bathed that umidificano all the day the places in order to hide and of are disposed of sponges umidificano the inside. In devout the evaporation cause a sure cooling and clearly ago to diminish the temperature, confronted to the surrounding zone (we have measured a difference of until 8C in the temperature). The substrate composed from one sand mixture and corteccia, stirred with fiber of coconut walnut. The cover with the dead leaves concurs one bathed foundation and one dry surface. The generous innaffiamento and to spray of the plants with water humid region in the terrario forms always one. Moreover us a great number of porcellini of earth who are the welcomes poich contributes to maintain the terrario clean. If a turtle does not use the tubes in order to hide, it fills with earth in the substrate of the humid zone. Even if the drinkable water constantly available in the plates, the animals prefer drink the drops from the plants innaffiate, levandosi in feet on their posterior legs. Altogether it appears clearly that an advised breeding with devout umidit. From the transfer of the animals in the greenhouse second the description, the problems with the respiratory diseases are disappeared completely. Beyond that the light of the natural day the tanks are illuminate the entire day to you with a "fluorescent Arcadia 3D";. In order to heat itself devout fastly of day they are uses two spot you warm of 40 and 60, in order to obtain one temperature of approximately 45. The turtles scaldano shortly under the lamps after the ignition. After the heating, they still eat and they disappear in their hiding places. In the afternoon one only has place resumption of attivit.



In nature the summery periods are introduced with characteristics climatic of aridit, with consequent lack of water and disponibilit reduced of the food bound together to high the temperatures. In order to survive, the turtles occupy mammalian small lairs (BUSKIRK 1990). Devout deeply they go, less there infuence of the sun and temperature diminishes, while the umidit it increases (GAD 2001). The model anniversary of the temperature in our greenhouse is similar the natural circumstances. Holding account delle necessary circumstances for the others our turtles, devout the high temperatures della night do not coincide with the climatic terms us nella natural range della turtle Egyptian. With our surprise, this end has not caused some problem here. Probably the deep shelters proteggono the animals from the great thermal excursion between the day and the night in their natural habitat. Towards the May end the temperatures become critical during the full sun days in the greenhouse. From then, but aftera period of transition, the animals alternatively obtain only the hay and the alimony buckets offers. The morning we do not bathe devout is gone. The umidit general in the terrari it only comes from the innaffiamento of the plants and sponges bathed on the tubes of the clay. In these circumstances the animals withdraw themselves in their hiding places. They do not eat devout. Initially they emerge only occasionally from their hiding places, then not devout. They go in estivazione. To the August conclusion we spray the terrari intensively in order to simulate an other change of the climate and the turtles obtain the fresh green food newly. Moreover hour they make the bath several times in order to offer the sufficient water in order to facilitate the excretion of the considerable amounts of the urati ones accumulates to you in the blister during the estivazione. It is necessary generally or a two week until that the animals are still completely active.



We feed the animals with collected fresh food in our garden, are nourished with different kinds of sedum, alfalfa white man, teeth of lion and erbacce different. According to disponibilit they ages, is moreover flowers, berries and yields alternatively offered. In the winter, we feed generally with curly cabbage, the cicoria, the Chinese cabbage, the indivia, dolcetta and insalate mixed of the storees of verdure nearly the all the animals accept apples, one eat the red pepper. However both are offers very rarely. The tried ones to you with the buds to the inside of the terrario they have been excluded perch the animals would not eat them. Our animals prefer drink the drops of the water from the plants, the panels of E glass other devout objects that give the plates. Consequently the often not sprayed food offered not cut and with water. The enriched drinkable water with knows them of the sea in a omeopatico rate application and also to times with little crystals of the ioduro of the potassio. The food enriched from one spolveratura of tritate eggs fine (in powder). Spolverizziamo approximately once to the month the food with "Korvimin", one mixture of the vitamins and minerals. Not us main difference in feeding the small or the adults. In a generalized manner we offer the devout parts to hold fine chipped to the small.


You adorned to you

after the estivazione of the 2001 and bath, one of my egg females fattrice has expelled nine worms (ascarids) with to one great mass of excrements. The large worm devout measured 17 centimeters, frightful, devout the small 9 centimeters. Until then we had considered the free animals from worms in absence of visible test. After a careful examination we have uncovered ascarids or ossiori (nematodi) in all the animals. Immediately we have cured the entire group with "Welpan". The medicine be trained through the feeding and by means of gastric probe. Be observed no secondary effect with the suggested dosage used (2,5 ml/kg). The first had deposition in 1999 during the temporary lodging in the greenhouse. After little days of interval we have found two eggs that they have not been buried. These eggs have not been developed. In the sistemazione they puts into effect, all the depositions hour happen between the November end and the May beginning and is introduced to us exclusively from the 7:00 to the 10:00 of the morning from both the mature females (in different terrari) has buried the brooded one directly under the spot from 40 W or 60W. All the eggs have been buried devout deeply possible (the thickness of the substrate of 8 centimeters). Several trying to you of deposition test they have been observes to you before that to real deposition it happened. In a 2000 female it has produced a total of 10 eggs in 5 depositions. In 2001 the same animal has produced a total of 13 eggs in 6 depositions, while an other female has made altogether 9 eggs in 4 depositions. The egg number for the varied deposition between 1 and 4. Only 1 deposition with 4 eggs be carried out and 1 of eggs was much not developed small and, while an other broken egg in the burial. Perhaps this would not be happened using a deep substrate devout. In average the intervals between the depositions are of 24 days for the first female and of 38 days for the second female.


testudo kleinmanni tartarughe tartaruga rettili


Incubation and schiuse

For the incubation, the greater part of eggs end has been buried in tanks opened in the dry sand and has been arranged right under the ceiling in the greenhouse here. Here the temperatures vary giornalmente between 27 ' C - 34 ' C and the umidit between 60 to 65 %. To some small durations brooded the shell of the egg has joined to the carapace. During year 2001 therefore some depositions have been incubated on "Vermiculite", stirred with water to a relationship of 1:1 in box of plastic pierce to you on the cover. In these circumstances the small are been born after 81 - 106 days. There in the same one brooded be one difference of one week of schiusa between the small. Between the small the weights vary 4 - 10 in majority approximately 8g.


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They are happened losses explained of before not brooded and seemed to be correlated with one fast development. The first small have caught up in a devout year weight of a 30 g and one length of 55 millimeters. The carapace imperfectly developed and motivatings force it was rickets index. We have recognized a similar model of development in many of the small of data year. They had been tantissime depositions and eggs and many small had been incubate you for a short time before or even during the warm season.
We accidentally have forgotten to consider the fact the adults estivano under these conditions in this period and have maintained to the small in identical terrari and under the same exposure of the adults in our apartment creating the conditions of one wrong increase.
To the day they are today not exposed to the high temperatures crafts them of the summery greenhouse and these problems have been resolved. From then the maintenance of the small in such way it provokes a good development. E' important to irrorare to every spray morning the terrario. The animals prefer to take the drops of the water from the food, from the plants etc. A lot probably in nature is accustomed to dissetarsi with the dew.

Italian translation: Tartagnan

we thank the situated one TARTAPORTAL For the realization of this card.